Friday, May 31, 2019
Corruption The act of corrupting or of impairing integrity, virtue, or clean-living principle the state of organism vitiate or debased loss of purity or integrity depravity wickedness impurity bribery. In the blast gritty Chips corruption overshadows true up significance of sports tournament. There are 2 challenging issues in the film dealing with money and morals. Bribery is used to nevertheless the acrobatic reputation of the university. A college basketball civilise finds himself battling between his morals, integrity of the team up and institution he works for. Pete price a basketball coach at Western University. pram Bell has an impeccable reputation at WU, coaching the number one basketball team in the nation. During his coaching career, WU has win two national championships cardinal concourse titles and has never had a losing flavour. His life passion is basketball and his great fear is losing a tournament. Making a six-figure net income and universe resp onsible for a team that 15,000 people came to watch,one could say he was completely pleased. His work was honored especially the way he continuously contend by the rules. He knew of many coaches that would bribe their recruits or players for fixed games. Bell despised coaches who played parts in such corruption. During one season his greatest fear came reality. His team lost, this was a major failure to WUCorruption The act of corrupting or of impairing integrity, virtue, or moral principle the state of being corrupted or debased loss of purity or integrity depravity wickedness impurity bribery. In the film Blue Chips corruption overshadows true meaning of sports tournament. There are two challenging issues in the film dealing with money and morals. Bribery is used to save the athletic reputation of the university. A college basketball coach finds himself battling between his morals, integrity of the team and institution he works for. Pete Bell a basketball coach at Western Univer sity. Coach Bell has an impeccable reputation at WU, coaching the number one basketball team in the nation. During his coaching career, WU has won two national championships eight conference titles and has never had a losing season. His life passion is basketball and his greatest fear is losing a tournament. Making a six-figure salary and being responsible for a team that 15,000 people came to watch,one could say he was completely pleased. His work was honored especially the way he always played by the rules. He knew of many coaches that would bribe their recruits or players for fixed games.Corruption in the Film Blue Chips Blue Chips Movie Corruption The act of corrupting or of impairing integrity, virtue, or moral principle the state of being corrupted or debased loss of purity or integrity depravity wickedness impurity bribery. In the film Blue Chips corruption overshadows true meaning of sports tournament. There are two challenging issues in the film dealing with money and mor als. Bribery is used to save the athletic reputation of the university. A college basketball coach finds himself battling between his morals, integrity of the team and institution he works for. Pete Bell a basketball coach at Western University. Coach Bell has an impeccable reputation at WU, coaching the number one basketball team in the nation. During his coaching career, WU has won two national championships eight conference titles and has never had a losing season. His life passion is basketball and his greatest fear is losing a tournament. Making a six-figure salary and being responsible for a team that 15,000 people came to watch,one could say he was completely pleased. His work was honored especially the way he always played by the rules. He knew of many coaches that would bribe their recruits or players for fixed games. Bell despised coaches who played parts in such corruption. During one season his greatest fear came reality. His team lost, this was a major failure to WUCorr uption The act of corrupting or of impairing integrity, virtue, or moral principle the state of being corrupted or debased loss of purity or integrity depravity wickedness impurity bribery. In the film Blue Chips corruption overshadows true meaning of sports tournament. There are two challenging issues in the film dealing with money and morals. Bribery is used to save the athletic reputation of the university. A college basketball coach finds himself battling between his morals, integrity of the team and institution he works for. Pete Bell a basketball coach at Western University. Coach Bell has an impeccable reputation at WU, coaching the number one basketball team in the nation. During his coaching career, WU has won two national championships eight conference titles and has never had a losing season. His life passion is basketball and his greatest fear is losing a tournament. Making a six-figure salary and being responsible for a team that 15,000 people came to watch,one could sa y he was completely pleased. His work was honored especially the way he always played by the rules. He knew of many coaches that would bribe their recruits or players for fixed games.
at May 31, 2019
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Introduction ...We live in a breakable takeable world, an ever available possible world These words, by poet and singer-songwriter Ani Difranco, articulate the relationship between the milieu and its inhabitants. Society is constantly manipulating the environment. Our capacity for changing the environment is kept in check by the destructible aspect of nature. The changes we make, those advancements in technology, are limited. While the industrial revolution, per say, is over, industry is ever expanding, moving us into a faster, more efficient lifestyle. However, efficiency and advanced technology are not without their price, and that fee, even more so than monetary in nature, is more accurately quantified by an increased duress on the environment and its inhabitants. As industry expands, waste products increase, and often this waste is harmful to humans, plants, and animals. So-c altogethered advancements, such as pesticides, which can greatly increase crop production, may cause ch ronic health problems. Environmental stressors, such as smelters, chemical plants, incinerators, and landfills all result from efforts to improve the functioning of society, and all have adverse effects on the populations living within proximity of these stressors (Bullard 1994).The Problem We have decided as a collective society to further our technology and expand our industries at the cost of a less healthy environment. Because this decision is one that affects all of us, we must be willing to take equal responsibility for the harm done to the environment and to its inhabitants. Unfortunately, white members of the middle and upper socio-economic classes have not current the price of advancement, and have instead placed the burdens of ou... ...onmental Planning and Management. June 1996, Volume 392.Less Equal than Others. Lancet. April 2, 1994, Volume 3438901.Payne, Henry. Green Redlining. Reason. October 1998, Volume 305. BibliographyBoerner, Christopher. Environmental Injus tice. public Interest. Winter 1995, Issue 118.Bullard, Robert D. Overcoming Racism in Environmental Decisionmaking. Environment. May 1994, Volume 364.Durning, Alan. Action at the Grassroots fighting poverty and environmental decline. Worldswatch base Washington D.C., 1989.Environmental Racism? Wilson Quarterly. Spring 1995, Volume 192.Sachs, Aaron. Eco-Justice linking human rights and the environment. Worldswatch Insititute Washington D.C., 1995.Reilly, William K. Environmental Equity EPAs position. EPA Journal. March/April 1992, Volume 181.
Diverse cultures within the United States are rapidly developing and growing and the educational sector is the number one target to promise that face learners are receiving adequate education. Within the educational sector there are administrators and teachers who are involved in bookmans lives on a daily basis to ensure that education is equal. In order to achieve the vital objective of equality, socio-cultural influences on ELL students, bilingualism and home language use, parental and community resources, and partnerships between families and schools all have to be considered to take into account an opportunity for equal education.The American society has a vast influence on students who are English learners. In this case it is prominent for educators to provide the best chicaneledge, creative strategies for learning and classroom management skills that are reliable to give these students the best education. Becoming more perceptive and analytic observers as educators enable s teachers to discover human faces of childrens everyday learning experience from home that could be adapted for use in school (Leighton, Hightower, Wrigley, 1995). In order to understand the most important aspect about ELL students it is significant that the teacher become knowledgeable about the students cultural background. One way to accomplish this task is to become familiar with a students background by reading multicultural literature on the students culture, tradition, religion, and beliefs. Engage with the parents and family members to get the most important information about the student to know how the student learns. Once the educator has learned the students cultural background it will be easier to instruct the student and for student to learn. An ELL... ...education and students to flourish academically. ReferencesAcademic Writing Tips. Org. (2011). ELL families and schools. Retrieved April 5, 2012 from, http//academicwritingtips.org/ character/k2/item/640-ell-famili es-and-schools.html?tmpl=component&print=1Cummins (1994). Knowledge, power, and identity in teaching English as a second language Educating second language children. Cambridge, England Cambridge University Press.Leighton, M. S., Hightower, A. M., & Wrigley, P. (1995). cash in hand of knowledge for teaching Electronic version. In Model strategies in bilingual education Professional development. Washington, DC U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved April 5, from http//www.ed.gov/pubs/ModStrat/pt3i.htmlRobertson, K. (2007). Bilingual family night for ELL families. Retrieved April 5, 2012 from, http//www.colorincolorado.org/article/18800/
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Popper and Kuhn Two Views of ScienceIn this essay I attempt to reply the following two questions What is Karl Poppers view of science? Do I feel that Thomas Kuhn makes important points against it? The two articles that I make reference to are Science Conjectures and Refutations by Karl Popper and Logic of Discovery or Psychology of Research? by Thomas Kuhn. In the article, Science Conjectures and Refutations, Karl Popper attempts to describe the criteria that a conjecture essential meet for it to be considered scientific. He c every(prenominal)s this puzzle the problem of demarcation. Popper summarizes his arguments by saying, the criterion of the scientific status of a theory is its falsifiability, or refutability, or testability. Kuhn says that he and Popper a good deal agree as to what constitutes science and non-science. He claims that he differs with Popper in the methods that he uses to arrive at his conclusions. Kuhn says that if a line of demarcation is to be sought min gled with science and non-science, we shouldnt look for a sharp or decisive one, because science is not objective, as Popper would have us believe, but subjective.Popper claims that the common final result to the problem of delineating between science and pseudo-science is that science uses an empirical method, deriving from observations and experiments. This explanation does not satisfy Popper. He has a gut feeling that areas of study kindred astrology are not science, and he attempts to come up with a theory to prove it. One of the problems I have with Popper is that instead of looking at a concrete problem and trying to come up with an explanation, Popper first made up his mind that astrology is not science, and then set issue to prove it. By Poppers own admissions, confirming evidence is everywhere, but means little. This could be applied all of Poppers examples.Popper is dissatisfied with the Marxist theory of history, psychoanalysis, and individual psychology. He sets out t o describe why his gut tells him that these are unscientific theories. He argues against theories that have explanatory power. Popper has a problem with Marxists because no social function what happens in the world, they can explain the event in light of their theory. When a person believes a theory to be true, everything that happens is a verification of the truthfulness of the theory. Poppers example is how a Marxists cant... ...ctly what it was besides an instinct that it was different from to a greater extent traditional sciences like chemistry or physics. Why was he so compulsive to separate empirical science from pseudo-science? If I could talk to Popper, I would ask him, why bother trying to draw a line at all? It would be more fruitful to try and distinguish between what is or isnt true and what is or isnt significant.I have a dip to lean towards Kuhn over Popper. It dont think that Poppers ideal of proper science is useful, and he seems to agree with me (neither a probl em of meaningfulness or significance, nor a problem of truth or acceptability.) Kuhn looks at how the world really works, a far more significant area of study. Popper thinks that he has all of the answers. I distrust people who think that they know everything. I agree with Socrates, who said something like, The only true wisdom is knowing that you know nothing. Kuhn doesnt make rules most how science should be done, he makes suggestions. Popper wants to draw a line down the middle between science and non-science. The more I look at the problem, the more it becomes obvious that the line is not sharp, if it can be drawn at all.
at May 29, 2019
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Challenges for US Counter-terrorism Efforts As a direct consequence of September 11, a number of substantial challenges lie ahead in the area of counter-terrorism.. The virtually prominent of these is the changing nature of the terrorism phenomenon. In past years, when terrorism was largely the product of direct state sponsorship, policymakers were able to diminish prospects for the United States seemly a target using a combination of diplomatic and military instruments to deter potential state sponsors. Today, however, many terrorist organizations and individuals act independently from former and largess state sponsors, shifting to other sources of support, including the development of transnational networks. Many terrorism experts have suggested a shift in the type of violence terrorists are will to inflict. Terrorism statistics indicate an overall reduction in the number of terrorism incidents per year, but an increase in the number of victims per incidents. While the numb er of historical cases of terrorists using CBRN weaponry is low, this trend toward increasing violence and less state control may drive certain terrorist groups toward unconventional weapons. On the other hand, the reduction in direct state support may decrease the terrorists ability to acquire or independently develop CBRN weapons. These shifts have produced a number of policy and course of instruction initiatives designed to better deter and prevent future acts of terrorism while also building a national capacity to effectively respond to terrorism incidents involving the full range of weapon types. A key challenge is working both at home and abroad to identify, track, and defeat terrorist groups before they undertake acts of violen... ... to a greater extent fully explored. As we move forward after September 11, terrorism receives increased attention in the foreign policy, national defense, and law enforcement communities. As we pass judgment and formulate our internationa l and national commitments, policymakers are likely to consider possible impacts of terrorism on those commitments and on public and political support vital to those commitments. The challenges lining us in assessing threats, allocating resources, and insuring an effective congressional role in counter-terrorism policy are complex. But inherent in challenges are opportunities to bring together the different elements of the counter-terrorism community to share information, experiences, ideas, and creative suggestions about how to effectively deal with this growing national security, law enforcement, and public policy concern.
Challenges for US Counter-terrorism Efforts As a direct consequence of September 11, a tally of substantial challenges delusion ahead in the area of counter-terrorism.. The most prominent of these is the changing nature of the terrorism phenomenon. In past years, when terrorism was largely the product of direct terra firma sponsorship, form _or_ system of governmentmakers were able to diminish prospects for the United States becoming a target using a combination of diplomatic and military instruments to deter potential state sponsors. Today, however, legion(predicate) terrorist organizations and individuals act independently from former and present state sponsors, shifting to other sources of support, including the development of trans field of study networks. Many terrorism experts pee suggested a shift in the type of violence terrorists are willing to inflict. Terrorism statistics indicate an overall reduction in the number of terrorism incidents per year, but an increase in the number of victims per incidents. While the number of historical cases of terrorists using CBRN weaponry is low, this trend toward increasing violence and less state control may drive certain terrorist groups toward outlaw(a) weapons. On the other hand, the reduction in direct state support may decrease the terrorists ability to acquire or independently develop CBRN weapons. These shifts have produced a number of policy and program initiatives designed to better deter and prevent future acts of terrorism while also building a national capacity to effectively respond to terrorism incidents involving the full range of weapon types. A key challenge is working both at home and distant to identify, track, and defeat terrorist groups before they undertake acts of violen... ... more fully explored. As we move forward after September 11, terrorism receives increased attention in the foreign policy, national defense, and law enforcement communities. As we assess and formulate our international and national commitments, policymakers are likely to consider possible impacts of terrorism on those commitments and on everyday and political support vital to those commitments. The challenges facing us in assessing threats, allocating resources, and insuring an effective congressional role in counter-terrorism policy are complex. But inherent in challenges are opportunities to bring together the diverse elements of the counter-terrorism community to share information, experiences, ideas, and creative suggestions about how to effectively deal with this growing national security, law enforcement, and public policy concern.
Monday, May 27, 2019
A critical palingenesis on the authority of the SENCO and dyslexia how this spot has been affected and wedge upon by recent legislation Introduction The BDA Dyslexia Fri peculiarityly teachs Pack for Teachers (2009) provides an everyplace completely guide of what dyslexia is and how a dyslexia friendly cultivate should be delivering education to the dyslexic learner. The writers experience with a definition of dyslexia stating that dyslexia is a learning difference, a combination of strengths and weaknesses.This is an informative definition as opposed to the recommendation of Norwich et al (2005) that exemplary rails should uphold an inclusive school system whereby dyslexia is considered and not in isolation. The BDA (2009) state that importance ought to be located on acknowledging dyslexia as a specific learning encumbrance as a specific learning difference so that teaching is inclusive and focuses on all learners rather than just the dyslexic learner who whitethorn al ready feel something is wrong with them.However, I stress that this general definition is simplistic and I agree with Reid that there should be a working/ usable definition. Reids definition of dyslexia is more informative There whitethorn be visual and phonological difficulties and there is usually some discrepancy in performances in divergent beas of learning. It is important that the individual differences and learning styles are acknowledged since these will affect outcomes of assessment and learning. (p. 4-5, Reid, 2003).The BDA (2009) conclude to achieve BDA Quality Mark status, LEAs and their associated schools must strike off ahead and identify outstanding practice in following and improving admission price to education for all learners. I feel that planning a dyslexia friendly school has the effect of improving the learning of not just the dyslexic learner but other pupils as rise up. According to Snowling et al (2011), dyslexia is seen to be a short season in phonol ogical skills which, in turn, compromises the ability to learn the graphemeph aceme mappings that underpin competence in an alphabetic system.Snowling et als (2011) research underpins the real definition of dyslexia that it is a specific reading difficulty whereby literacy under achievement is apparent and falls below the accepted level given the intelligence of the learner. This ingest is important it goes beyond recounting dyslexia at the behavioural level (i. e. incorrect spelling and reading) to taking into consideration weaknesses at the cognitive level that explicate the practicable line of works (Morton & Frith, 1995).Dyslexic learners have dearths in three linked but dissimilar areas of phonological processing phonological awareness (the ability to attend to and manipulate sounds in words) phonological memory (memory for speech-based information besides referred to as verbal memory) and naming (providing the spoken label for a visual referent). (Vellutino et al. , 200 4). Consequently, recent definitions of dyslexia have discarded the lead for literacy to be appreciably below general aptitude, and have taken a widely accepted view of dyslexia with phonological processing as a core deficit (Lyon, Shaywitz & Shaywitz, 2003). ContextThe context in which I am employed is a small mainstream one-form entry Church of England voluntary aided primary school. The school is situated in a deprived inner city area in the London borough of Lewisham where 25% of the 225 children on roll from Nursery with to Year 6 are eligible for Free School Meals. This is momentously grittyer than 2006 national attends of 16% of all primary school children receiving Free School Meals (FSM). The number of children currently identify as having a modified educational Need is 47, or 20. 8% of the total school population which is slightly higher than 2005 national figures of 18%.The figure of 1. 7% is the number of SEND (Special educational Needs and Disabilities) children w ho have a literary argument of Special educational Need lower than national figures of 3% and the residuum of the SEND population comprises overwhelmingly of children on School Action Plus (78% 67. 5% represented by boys and 32. 5% represented by girls) and approximately 8% of SEND children on School Action. The largest de confinesine area of especial(a) need in the school falls under SLCN ( computer address, actors line and Communication Need ) as set out in the SEN principle of commit 2001 where 61% of SEND children have a medical diagnosis of receptive and/or xpressive language difficulty, followed by 21% of SEND children with a medical diagnosis of and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Other types of need are Downs Syndrome ( 2%), Aperts Syndrome (2%), Social, Emotional and behavioural Difficulties SEBD (6%), Dyslexia (2%) and more generally literacy difficulties which are under investigation for potential specific causes (6%). These needs are justifiable as they have bee n recognised and place as such by applicablely sufficient and external agencies or are in the process of being more specifically identified .A critical review of the role of the SENCO The role of the SENCo has developed through government policy and undergone significant changes in the past decade with the introduction of the statutory SEN Code of Practice 2001 which states that the role of the SENCo includes identifying and placing pupils in need of special educational provision on a graduated system, liaising with parents and other professionals in regards to children with SEND and advising and die harding other practitioners in the land amongst other responsibilities.This was largely interpreted as a co-ordinating role whereby Teaching Assistants ( in at least 36% of schools ) were employed in this capacity and contributed to disparities in provision nationally as salubrious as a divergence of roles. In 2009 red-hot government regulations and amendments to the SEN Code of Practice 2001 required SENCos to be suffice teachers and for those teachers new to the role to undergo compulsory training in the form of the National Award of SEN Coordination.The 2006 House of Commons Education and Skills Select Committee draw on SEN cl early defines the role of the SENCo as a strategic leader, and recommended that SENCos should in all cases be qualified teachers and in a senior management come in in the school as recommended in the SEN Code of Practice. (Recommendation 84) Statutory and regulatory frameworks and relevant cultures at national and local level The SEN Code of Practice 2001 remains the statutory legislation governing SEN practice and provision.The 2001 Code of Practice replaces the 1994 Code of Practice, although it retains much of the original charge, but takes into account developments in education since 1994 and includes new obligations introduced by the SEN and Disability Act 2001. The 2001 Code of Practice promotes a more consistent advanc ement to meeting the needs of children with SEN and focuses on preventative work and early identification as well as developing strong partnerships between parents, schools, local authorities, health and brotherly run and voluntary organisations.The school Special educational Needs and Disability policy is largely based on the SEN Code of Practice 2001 and incorporates elements of the statutory Disability Discrimination Act 2005, as well as local authority guidance of national policy, such as the Lewisham school action & school action plus guidance 2010. The school policy clearly states A child is deemed to have special educational needs when they are seen to have significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of their age conference, or have a disability which significantly hinders their use of educational facilities.When such difficulties or disabilities persistently demand the planning of educational provision diametric from that of the rest of the class, the child is placed on the Special Needs and Disabilities Profile. This is a confidential list of children for whom extra support may be necessary and whose encourage will be monitored by the class teacher and Inclusion Manager. ( rosiness & Lyle, 2011, p1) Some elements of the SEN Code of Practice 2001 framework are guidance, whilst others must be observed.This includes ensuring nexus with parents and other professional in respect to children with SEN, ensuring that Individual Education Plans (IEPs) are in place and that relevant information about individual children with SEN is collated, recorded and updated. The Code ensures that schools and local authorities must examine their practice and provision for children with SEN and that they are accountable by law e. g. offering full access to a broad, fit and relevant education.The Code of Practice emphasises the right of a child with SEN to access mainstream education through the development of provision in such vistas to meet a wide spectrum of SEN (COP 2001, 752-763) that may overlap in the categories of communication and interaction, cognition and learning, behaviour, emotional and social development and sensory and/or physical needs. The provision provided may involve well-differentiated Quality First teaching (Edwards 2010), intervention programmes including withdrawal from lass, specializer teaching or therapy or attendance ( full or part condemnation ) at a specialist setting. Children are to be identified as early as possible and their needs met through a graduated approach within the schools own resources ( School Action), increaseal support from external agencies ( School Action Plus ), or if encourage is inadequate and foster support from the Local authority is required, a Statement of Special educational Needs may be have it offd.As I prepared this essay, I have identified a number of key tensions in my particular school Whilst class teachers in my school accept, in accordance with the Na tional Curriculum Inclusion Statement 1999, that they must respond to childrens diverse learning needs and overcome potential barriers to learning and assessment for individuals and groups of pupils, including those with SEND, there has been a lack of clarity over the meaning of the term comprehension and with whom the overall responsibility of children on the SEND register lies.This is solidly surprising as there is little consensus on the distinct meaning of inclusion at national levels OFSTED tend to view inclusion as minimising inequalities for groups of children eg. including those with SEND, on FSM, gender, race or progress whilst teachers primarily regard inclusion chiefly in terms of individuals with SEND ( NASUWT Report 2008, p. 17 ) and their right to be include in a mainstream classroom and how to opera hat achieve this.Increasingly, I favour a model which allows individual children whether SEND, English as an Additional Language (EAL) or non-SEND to access an e ducation which best meets their needs based as much as possible within the mainstream classroom but through withdrawing children for specialist 11 or small group teaching depending on their needs and the gaps in their knowledge relative to their peers and age-related expectations.The non-statutory Removing Barriers for Achievement (2004) highlights that all teachers not just the SENCO or Inclusion Manager are responsible for teaching children with SEND. This also includes communicating the message to class teachers that they are often best placed to initially notice difficulties a child may be having and by reservation certain referral forms available to them, thereby actively engaging them in jointly taking responsibility for SEND or potential SEND children in their classes.The every(prenominal) Child Matters (2004) agenda is currently not statutory and is now being re-drafted as Every Child Achieves in a new White Paper, although the fiver original outcomes remain. The 5 outc omes are to stay safe, to be healthy, to enjoy and achieve, to make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being. The focus for schools not altogether has to be upon ensuring that all staff are aware of the 5 outcomes, but also on the impact and attainment made towards the 5 outcomes by all pupils and individuals within vulnerable groups, such as children with Special Educational Needs.Such agendas which sit alongside other requirements on class teachers to also focus on group outcomes such as groups of children attaining age related expectations hence creates pulls in opposing directions as to the levels of attainment a child is achieving and the best outcome for that child or competing rather than complementary agendas. There is a lack of clarity as to whether educational policy is concerned with normalisation and conformity, or genuinely values innovation and difference (NASUWT Report 2008, p. 18 ). This tension is a theme which continues in the form of narrowing t he gaps between groups and accelerated progress.In the case of children with Speech and Language difficulties or dyslexic tendencies, these terms appear contradictory and oxymoronic as typically such children need reinforcement and over learning compared to their peers operating at age-related expectations. It is hard to see how such children can make the requisite amount of progress as measured by national age-related attainment standards ( and making a minimum of 2 sub levels progress a year ) as opposed to progress as measured against their individual areas of weakness and specific difficulties.Measured this latter way, their progress may well be excellent although a system of levels and sub-levels may fail to be sensitive enough to chart this progress. I am because examining ways such as building in pre- and post intervention screening for relevant children and considering using Assessing Pupils Progress (APP) Speaking and Listening levels in addition to National Curriculum l evels in Reading, Writing and Maths to more sensitively measure progress.The contribution of extended services, such as Child and Adolescent psychogenic Health Services (CAMHS), Educational Psychology, Family Services, and Early Intervention Services to improve outcomes for children as set out in ECM(2004) is welcomed, although it is hard to measure the impact and the progress that this may have for a number of reasons in changing times, it is at times difficult to keep abreast of developments and changes to services offered and their accessibility divers(a) services may have a varying level of impact on different children and their families not all parents are receptive and some positively insusceptible to accepting referrals to certain services there can be a diffusion of responsibility once various agencies are involved. As a SENCo, one would encounter all of these barriers and find that developing good working, collaborative and supportive relationships with all representat ives of extended services that a SENCo works closely with as well as parents is the best way forward and ensuring that communication channels are maintained.This has to be carefully weighed against issues of data protection and confidentiality by ensuring for example that Common assessment Frameworks (CAFs) are raised before information is shared between agencies and that all sensitive information is stored in a safe location to which only a SENCo and the Headteacher have access. However, to enable class teachers to better understand the needs of children that a SENCo teaches on a daily basis, the SENCo would ensure that all class teachers are provided with relevant reports from external agencies and that these are used appropriately to inform planning and provision for a child within both a classroom and wider school setting.High relative incidence of SEN and dyslexia how they can affect pupils participation and learning and strategies to remove barriers to learning Baroness War nock is quoted SEN has come to be the name of a single category, and the government uses it as if it is the same problem to include a child in a wheelchair and a child with Aspergers, and that is conspicuously untrue (The Guardian, Tuesday January 31, 2006). Indeed, the 2006 House of Commons Select Committee Report on Special Educational Needs acknowledges that children exist on a broad continuum of needs and learning styles but do not fit into neat categories of different sorts of children those with and without SEN.The category of SEN is an arbitrary distinction that leads to false classifications and, it can be argued that, this is what is causing the high levels of conflict and frustration with all those involved. (p. 36) This has often been my experience when discussing the progress of various pupils on the SEND register with senior leadership who frequently use the terminology SEND and non-SEND. I am of the opinion that this is a blanket term which does little to understand the true nature of individual childrens difficulties and how best to address these. OFSTED comparison of groups engenders such an approach and is not sensitive enough to the variation between individuals.In the case of my school, it appears that the group most at risk of underachieving is higher ability girls with no SEN With an emphasis on the social context of special educational needs, Removing Barriers to Achievement (2004, p. 8,) states Difficulties in learning often arise from an unsuitable environment inappropriate grouping of pupils, inflexible teaching styles, or inaccessible curriculum as much from individual childrens physical, sensory or cognitive impairments. Children emotional and mental health needs may also have a significant impact on their ability to make the most of the opportunities in school, as may family circumstances. These considerations, combined with evidence that there is a link between social deprivation and SEN nationally as well as underachievemen t nationally and social deprivation, can make identification of SEN problematic in my school, especially at School Action Level for example, is a child making unequal progress in reading and writing because of difficulties such as potential dyslexia, or through poor parenting and a lack of exposure to books at home? Or both? Should the child be on the SEND register and is he/she underachieving? In such cases, assessment and targeted intervention at the specific area of weakness can help differentiate between a range of possible factors, but it may not always be so clear cut. What is clear is that these difficulties need to be addressed to minimise the longer term effects on such a childs development and to help them succeed in the future.This can involve working very closely, and in partnership with parents in order to create a sustainable and longer term solution. The OFSTED Special Educational Needs and Disability Review 2010 found that the term Special Educational Needs was too widely used with up 50% of schools visited using low attainment and slow progress as the key indicators of a special educational need, with in some cases, very little further assessment. According to the report, 50% of all pupils identified for School Action would not be identified as such if, schools focussed on improving teaching and learning for all, with individual goals for improvement (p. 3). This suggested a culture of underachievement due to low pupil expectations and poor mainstream teaching provision.It also found that pupils identified as having special educational needs were disproportionately from disadvantaged backgrounds and achieved less well than their peers in terms of attainment and progress over time. Parents were keen to have their children formally recognised as having special educational needs in order to ensure supernumerary support for their child. The part of the extra support from within or outside the school was not found to be good by inspectors. Pro vision was often not appropriate or of good enough quality and did not lead to better outcomes for the child. The review found that no one model or setting of special needs provision worked better than another.The key findings included improving the quality of assessment, improving teaching at an early stage to avoid extra provision at a later stage, ensuring that schools do not over-identify children as having special educational needs when better Quality First Teaching was required, ensuring that additional support was effective and developing specialist provision and services. A result of such findings and the implications for my school have been 1. A reduction in the number of children placed on School Action either by not being placed on the SEND register, or by being removed from it. In many cases, identified labels were behavioural.There is evidence that good class teacher behaviour management, combined with weekly visits from a pupil referral unit outreach worker, as well as a Learning Mentor, has helped to remove some emotional barriers to some childrens learning. However, definitions of behavioural difficulty can still remain unclear as this can be a fluid and relative term dependent on the setting of a class and the nature and frequency of behavioural challenge and hence vary nationally as well as within a school. Children remaining on school action are largely children with ongoing literacy difficulties, whose difficulties are being examined more specifically as suspected dyslexia. 2.Improved training for Teaching Assistants who are often the staff working closely with children identified with SEND. This has included in-house training and attendance on specific courses as well as reaching a minimum standard in Maths and English. Time factors and competing demands on Teaching Assistants time however are considerable constraints and hinder the impact that this training may have. The school now employs a NumbersCounts maths specialist. The impact of this specialist teaching needs greater time to develop to measure its effectiveness although I do not feel that curriculum sub-levels may necessarily be the best way to measure this impact for certain children. 3.A focus on Quality First teaching so that all staff educate, share and promote practical and achievable ways for every class teacher to adopt strategies as a matter of daily routine that are inclusive to children with Speech and Language difficulties and dyslexic tendencies to embed this in a culture of good general practice and reduce the potential for children to be classified as SEN when underachievement is the issue and provide a good learning environment for all children including those with SEN. The Code of Practice (2001) outlines four main areas of need cognition and learning, behaviour, emotional and social development needs, communication and interaction and sensory and/or physical needs. Compared to national 2006 figures ( DfES Special Educational Needs in England, January 2006. SFR23/2006), our school has a far higher incidence of Speech and Language difficulties including dyslexia ( 61% of the SEND egister ) ASD ( 21%) than the national figures ( 14. 3% and 2. 4% respectively ) but a much lower incidence of BESD ( 6% to 26. 5% nationally ). Part of the reason may be recent school investment in enhanced Speech and Language Service from the NHS, where the school together with 4 other local schools, funds weekly Speech and Language therapist time. This has lead to a high rate of referrals, which has led to a higher rate of detection. This picture is not evenly spread however the investment in Speech and Language, although justifiable as such difficulties impede access to many parts of the curriculum, comes at a cost to other categories of SEND as identified by the Code of Practice.Other childrens need are not always met quickly ( sometimes more than 2 terms ) despite early identification due to lengthy waiting times for assessments w ith low level, high incidence learning difficulties such as dyslexia having low priority in the hierarchy of urgency . There are only 2 Specialist Teachers qualified to formally diagnose dyslexia provided by the Lewisham Inclusion Service to support the needs of children in mainstream settings whose time is shared between 92 schools in the borough. This heart that specialist provision increasingly needs to be provided within the school setting and is dependent of current staff levels of expertise.This can create variability in the quality of provision for children with SEN across schools in the same locality. In accordance with the Equalities Act 2010 and Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (2001), schools must make rational adjustments for children with SEN and disabilities to access testing that does not discriminate against them on the basis of their disability or special need. A learner with a Statement of Special Educational Needs automatically qualifies for up to 25 % additional time in order to complete testing in Reading, Writing and Mathematics at the end of KS2 however changes in the criteria for awarding Statements of SEN in Lewisham have amounted to fewer statements being issued and financial savings for the authority.A diagnosis of dyslexia would not however result in additional time if the learner does not have a Statement unless considerable additional documentation is provided. The use of a scribe, transcript, technology such as a laptop or reader however for a dyslexic learner is discretionary upon a schools assessment of the learners need in order to access the tests and can be easily arranged. It is at least reasonable for Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) guidelines to permit such measures as scribes or laptops to remove potential barriers to performance for children with certain types of need under formal examination conditions to access the knowledge held by children who may not best be able to demonstrate in written form.In conclusion, whilst various governmental policies have aimed to improve the outcomes for children with SEND, there are difficulties some unforeseen between the principles set out and the translation of these into practice, with gaps and variations on local and national levels. We await the forthcoming new legislation around SEND and the implications that this will have on the ever-developing role of the SENCo forging a strategic path to best meet the needs Special Educational and otherwise of families and children within a tighter resource framework. References Special Educational Needs Code of Practice. DfEE 581/2001 November 2001 QCA Curriculum guidelines for learners with learning difficulty and special arrangements during Key Stage 2 tests 2012Special Educational Needs and Disabilty Act 2001 What Equality law means for you as an education provider schools. Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2010 Removing Barriers to Achievement The Governments Strategy for SEN. DfES/0118/2004. 2004 National Inclusion Statement, 1999 Every Child Matters Change for children (2004) Special Educational Needs and Inclusion Reflection and Renewal, NASUWT Report, 2008 House of Commons Select Committee Report on Special Educational Needs, HMSO, 2006 Inclusion Development planTeaching and supporting pupils with dyslexia. www. nasentraining. org. uk/resources/dyslexia-idp-materials/ The Special Educational Needs and Disability Review.Ofsted, 2010 The SENCO survival guide the nuts and bolts of everything you need to know Edwards, Sylvia National Association for Special Educational Needs (Great Britain) E-boo, Routledge, 2010, 1st edition Inclusion Does it matter where pupils are taught? Ofsted, 2006 Lewisham Local Education Authority publications School Action/School Action Plus guidance criteria (2010) Inclusion debate treads new ground, The Guardian, Tuesday 31, 2006 Hallett, F & Hallett, G (2010). Transforming the Role of the SENCO Achieving the Nationa l Award for SEN Coordination Open University Press Special Educational Needs and Disability Policy, Rose and Lyle, 2011
at May 27, 2019
Sunday, May 26, 2019
The African Museum in Philadelphia is notable as the first museum funded and built by a municipality to help preserve, interpret and exhibit the heritage of African Americans. Opened during the 1976 Bicentennial celebrations, the AAMP is located in historic Philadelphia, a few blocks away from the Liberty Bell. Charles H. Wesley was a noted African American historian, educator, and author. He was the one-fourth African American to receive a Ph. D. from Harvard University. An ordained minister, Wesleys distinguished career included 40 years of leadership with the African Methodist portentous Church.In 1976, he served as Director of the Afro-American Historical and Cultural Museum in Philadelphia, now known as the African American Museum in Philadelphia. Programs The African American Museum that is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania has some interesting education programs. These education programs focus on arts, culture, and heritage education. They place a major emphasis on the interests of the students, educators, artists, historians, scholars, and community organizations. These programs offer diversity with scheduling. The programs explore various African forms of cultural expressions.In these programs there are literary performances, hands on demonstrations, workshops, and storytelling performances as well. The African American Museum in Philadelphia feels its programs can be a vital link between the permanent and visiting collections for the many communities they serve. Exhibitions The exhibitions in the African American Museum in Philadelphia can some to be pleasing to the eye and stimulating to the mind. According to the African American Museum of Philadelphia these exhibitions invoke a deep collection of sensation ranging from pride and passion to excitement and enthusiasm.When visitors enter the museum they will come to head 1, which includes a interactive timeline, images draw from historical record, that spans 100 years of history. In Gallery 2 there are full size video projections in which visitors can in engage in them. Once they are activated, a soliloquy about life in Philadelphia will begin. Some other aspects of the exhibit include an experience where you can walk the streets of Philadelphia through a large home map, which is located between galleries 1 and 2 .
at May 26, 2019
Saturday, May 25, 2019
CLASS PROPHECY Its already 1030 in the morning, I must hurry or else I depart be late for my next flight. I suddenly exclaimed as I look at my watch to check the time. It was the last day of my trip present in Seoul, a getaway from the pressures of being a neurosurgeon. I immediately left the hotel to get my car and drive myself to the airport. While I am face out the window of my car, the big screens in the busy streets caught my attention featuring the fashion and showbiz industry.Speaking of fashion, Angelica Somoray, a supermodel, is now a well-known K-Pop per creator who is soon to be married. Desiree Micairan, an accountant, owns a workshop for dancing, singing and acting. Elaina Lara is currently working in her newest romantic movie with the most sought after leading man, Mike Joshua Luchana, who is hailed as the instrument of the Decade. These three girls, Angelica, Desiree, and Elaina are also International Dance Icons who replaced the Pussycat Dolls. As I arrive in th e airport.I never expected that I would run into my former classmate, Celina Burlat dressed with a uniform that has the logo of a U. S Airline. She is now a flight stewardess taking the same trip to France where she and her family migrated. While delay for departure, Celina handed me a magazine that features Mr. Vhan Gonzales, and Mr. Alexis Virgel Aladad who are successful business tycoons. After some time, the pilot announces that we are almost ready to depart. Such voice seems so familiar to me.So that when the stewardess announces the names of the pilots, I was really sure that the pilot of the plane which I was boarding is our former classmate, Jay Roll Solon, and his assistant, Jason Baterbonia. So when the plane come in the airport, I did not waste time to meet the pilots. When we were standing face to face each otherwise, I could hardly believe to see the pilots such(prenominal) handsome & self-assured persons in their pilot uniforms. They invited me to a flashy lounge in the airport. We were so excited to meet again and we talked about our present lives as well as reminisce our high school experiences.I ask about our former classmates and immediately, Jay Roll, having met many of them to different parts of the humankind, told me about their success and their whereabouts. John Riel Deiparine and Daniel cutting edge Manaez who are both famous classical musicians, are currently in a world concert tour. John Riel was named as the Mozart of the 21st century. Daniel, on the other hand, is named as The Great Soprano. Runette Marie Diaz, the writer of the best cooking magazine in the world, owns 52 branches of her Spanish Restaurant.Oscar Awardee, Nicole Manuawan was declared as one of the richest people in the world by Forbes Magazine. The Chicago Bulls sharp shooter Kevin Cortez who replaced Derrick Rose led his team on a championship game against the big-three of Miami Heat who were Randy Gumapac, Ryan Lara, and Clark Lauron. They are hardly a(pren ominal) of the Filipino Athletes in the NBA League. May Roselle Joyce Ang, owns one of the most prestigious commercial banks in the world. Marjewrie Gallego, a lawyer in profession, is elected as jurist in the International Criminal Court.John Dorryl Payumo works as a manager at the Microsoft Company. He is one of the founders of the latest social networking site. John Aleth Bocal, who is a clinical pharmacist, owns the famous Aleths Pharmacy. After bind with the pilots, I got into my car and drive to the nearest hotel to stay in. The next morning, I started the day with a prayer. I morose on the television and again, I saw Bea Ayuban on her daily news segment, Good Morning Bea with her co-host who is apparently his husband, Tombelle Lara. Tombelle is one of the members of the famous Altima Band.The lead vocalist, Julian Caderao, is on a vacation trip with her fiance. After the segment, I turned the TV off. All of a sudden, my phone began to ring. It was Engineer Kristine Joy Alco rdo inviting me to visit her home. It was already nefariousness when I reached her home. My friends, Engineer Leo Abunda and Architect Xena Gonzales were also there. They told me about the constructions they have been through. Kristine, Leo, and Xena are the men behind those great buildings around the world. The night was fun bonding with them. Not until the neighboring house began to explode on fire.I quickly opened my eyes and realized that I was further dreaming as my classmates laugh because I was taking a nap in our Economics class under Sir Jefferson Guinang. But for me, it is not only a dream. It is a dream that needs fulfillment. If only we persevere, study hard, and pray, nothing would be impossible to be reached. This prophecy serves as a challenge among the Seniors. May we all achieve these realms. Thank you and God conjure Us All. Written by downbeatdynamo. tumblr. com Written for IV EMERALDS BATCH 2011-2012
at May 25, 2019
Friday, May 24, 2019
IntroductionSkill is an art of finishing work in a clip frame. It includes creativeness, work outing a job and managing clip. Different people have unalike effects but iodin of the acquirements is acknowledging the accomplishments they possess. Pull offing clip, organic structure linguistic communication, pass oning with people, reading be some of the type of accomplishments.Skills argon required to incite ourselves for work outing contrary jobs that comes in our life and to acquire success in our life. There s two type of accomplishmentGeneral Skills metre direction, leading and cap competent of working in a squad, pass oning decently, reading, composing are some of the general accomplishment which is really indispenscapable for people.Specific Skills beyond general accomplishments or the accomplishment they have which are non common are specific accomplishments. voice Engineer. These types of accomplishments are non possessed by everyone.Movable accomplishments The accompli shments which we have are used to bring forth another accomplishment is known movable accomplishments. Example if person has a accomplishment to playSimilarly I do hold some accomplishments which are assisting in my day-after-day life though I need to larn some much accomplishments which would assist me for acquiring favored in life. I do hold a accomplishment for squad work and clip direction, reading, playing football and to make in writing aim and make some designs.In other manus, I do lack communicating accomplishment. As I am foreign school-age child here and slope is non my first linguistic communication so I do hold job in speech production in English sometime. So I truly need to better my communicating accomplishment. I need to be advanced so that I can bring forth new thoughts which would cyberspace me and the universe every slur skinny.1.2 You will bring forth a proficient papers that could be used in an organisation utilizing at least two appropriate movable acco mplishmentsEmployers are ever looking for alumnuss who can rapidly suit in to their organisation and green goods added value for their company. The alumnus who is elastic and can accommodate easy is most likely to accomplish success both for the company and for themselves. Movable Skills are extremely valued by employers. So student should take the opportunity to develop these accomplishments at every chance in their degree class. There are many different movable accomplishments that should be possessed by a individual which could be used in an organisation. Some of them are listed belowGeneral SkillsAcademic SkillsInterpersonal SkillsMotor accomplishments concept skills & A Developing thoughtsIT competencySelf-motivation, self-regulation and confidenceIn modern universe, about everything rely on computing machine as it helps people in devising work more easy, merely and systematic. It besides helps in making work fast so it saves clip. Presents even in school from basic degree p upil are taught computing machine. So people should hold at least cognition of utilizing some package like MS-office, which helps a batch in day-to-day life. So these accomplishments can be used in administration. As a administration has tonss of informations to be sent, saved and made. So making this full thing in computing machine makes it easier, simpler and systematic. Example In an organisation many information has to be sent and received and if these information are sent by berth so it takes clip but if use electronic mail, information s can be sent within a few seconds.so IT competency is one of the movable accomplishments that can be used in an organisation.Second most of import movable accomplishments that can be used in an organisation are interpersonal accomplishment. Internal personal includes hearing, composing and talking. If a individual has a wont of listening to the talks in category in pupil life, discoursing the subject in category and making his assignment so, this sort of interpersonal accomplishments can be transferred in future. So subsequently he would be accustomed to this accomplishment and would be taking active engagement in meeting and seminar by listening to other s idea and expresses his thoughts excessively. It helps to do programs and patterned advance of an organisation.As I work portion clip in a hotel as a housekeeper. There are some accomplishments I need to possess to follow up my work. First I need to be punctual and be at that place in work at clip. Second, as I work with 2 other co-worker to finish the undertaking. I need to work as a squad. And I have team participant accomplishments which is assisting me at the minute in the work.1.3You will warrant why it is of import to hold good movable accomplishments and the ability to pass on these across a broad audience.Movable accomplishments rigorous the accomplishments which we have and that accomplishment is transferred or used in making other work. It is of import to hold good movable accomplishments because it helps us making new work. Example if we are a good squad participant we can reassign our that accomplishment in occupation which would truly profit us really oft because in work topographic point we meet different type of people and different people think otherwise so we should be able to work together with other people to run a office decently. to a fault if person is a director in a workplace so he should be able to take the people otherwise there may be a job and the direction can non travel smooth. Likewise if we have good mass communicating accomplishments so we can affect people by our words and ideas. And we would be able to show yourself to the universe.If we have good accomplishments in acquisition and reading, so we will be able to cognize other s thought and with the aid of that thoughts we have create new different thought. Example Newton had created three Torahs which are used in scientific discipline for making many differ ent things. So it has helped scientific discipline in many ways. Similarly, we need to hold movable accomplishments likeSelf-motivationSelf-regulationSelf-assuranceTime directionIf we have self motive accomplishments, it will ever take us to development. Example when we are in school, if we do nt acquire good classs at first so we need to hold self motive accomplishments to analyze more earnestly so that we can acquire good consequences following clip. And if we are able to get this accomplishment so we can subsequently reassign this accomplishment in different topographic point in workplace so that we would be able to make convey positive alteration and receive get ahead from it. In other manus, clip direction is really of import accomplishment that everybody should possess because if we ca nt be able to pull off clip so we ca nt make anything. Example in a pupil life, we need to pull off clip for analyzing and excess course of study activities. This is every bit of import for our cognition and personality development. Equally good as, if we can be able to pull off clip so it will assist us in future.As everyone knows clip does nt wait for anybody and one time the chance is gone so the same chance neer comes back once more. And to be made in life we need to be able to cognize the importance of clip. Example when we have to achieve some meeting and we if we do nt be able to be in clip we wo nt be able to discourse about the topic and decision. So it is really of import to hold movable accomplishments and which would profit us and to other people as good.
at May 24, 2019
Thursday, May 23, 2019
According to the omnipotent view, managers are directly responsible for an organizations success or failure. The exemplary view argues that much of an organizations success or failure is due to external forces outside managers control. The two constraints on managers adroitness are the organizations ending (internal) and the environs (external). Managers arent totally constrained by these two occurrenceors since they can and do influence their culture and environment. s the characteristics and importance of organizational culture. The seven dimensions of culture are attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, stability, and innovation and risk taking. In organizations with strong cultures, employees are much loyal and performance tends to be higher. The stronger a culture becomes, the more it affects the way managers plan, organize, lead, and control. The original source of a culture reflects the vision of organizational found ers. A culture is maintained by employee selection practices, the actions of top managers, and socialization processes.Also, culture is transmitted to employees through stories, rituals, material symbols, and language. These elements help employees learn what values and behaviors are important as healthy as who exemplifies those values. The culture affects how managers plan, organize, lead, and control. current issues in organizational culture. The characteristics of an innovative culture are challenge and involvement, freedom, trust and openness, idea time, playfulness/humor, conflict resolution, debates, and risk-taking. A customer-responsive culture has five characteristics outgoing and friendly employees jobs with few rigid rules, procedures, and regulations empowerment clear roles and expectations and employees who are conscientious in their desire to please the customer. Workplace otherworldliness is important because employees are looking for a counterbalance to the stresse s and pressures of a turbulent pace of life. Aging baby boomers and other workers are looking for close tothing meaningful in their lives, an involvement and connection that they often dont find in contemporary lifestyles, and to meet the needs that organized religion is not meeting for some of them.Spiritual organizations tend to have five characteristics strong sense of purpose, focus on individual development, trust and openness, employee empowerment, and toleration of employee expression. The External Environment Constraints and Challenges Despitethe fact that appliance sales are expected to climb for the first time in four years, Whirlpool Corporation, which already shut down 10 portion of its production capacity, continues to cut costs and scale down capacity even more.7 And its not alone in its protective, defensive actions. The decade from 2000 to 2009 was a dispute one for organizations. For instance, some well-known stand-alone businesses at the beginning of the decade were acquired by other companies during this time, including Compaq (now a theatrical role of Hewlett-Packard), Gillette (now a part of Procter & Gamble), Anheuser-Busch (now a part of Anheuser-Busch InBev), and Merrill Lynch (now a part of Bank of America) others disappeared altogether, including Lehman Brothers, Circuit City, and Steve & Barrys (all now bankrupt) and WorldCom and Enron (both done in by ethics scandals).8 Anyone who doubts the impact the external environment has on managing just needs to look at whats happened during the last decade. The term external environment refers to factors and forces outside the organization that affect its performance. As shown in Exhibit 2-2, it includes several different components. The economic component encompasses factors such as interest rates, inflation, changes in disposable income, stock market fluctuations, and business cycle stages. The demographic component is concerned with trends in population characteristics such as age, ra ce, gender, education level, geographic location, income, and family composition. The political/legal component looks at federal, state, and local laws, as well as global laws and laws of other countries.It also includes a countrys political conditions and stability. The sociocultural component is concerned with societal and cultural factors such as values, attitudes, trends, traditions, lifestyles, beliefs, tastes, and patterns of behavior. The technological component is concerned with scientific or industrial innovations. And the global component encompasses those issues associated with globalization and a world economy. Although all these components pose potential constraints on managers decisions and actions, were going to take a closer look at two of themthe economic and demographic aspects. Then, well look at how changes taking place in those components constrain managers and organizations. Well wrap up this section by examining environmental uncertainty and stakeholder relati onships.
at May 23, 2019
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Mahedi 01914919285 Subject effrontery Level Knowledge Chapter 1 (Concept of & pauperization for Assurance) Assurance a conclusion of an opinion de characteristiced to enhance the degree of confidence of the intended users by evaluating or measuring of a subject matter. Assurance strife is a redevelopment by which a practitioner can obtain the authority to express a conclusion opinion almost the outcome of the evaluation or step of a subject matter against criteria to enhance the degree of confidence of the intended users. Key elements of assumption engagement Three parties A subject matter Suitable criteria Sufficient criteria ReportReasonable dominance is the high but non absolute level of assurance, depends on evidence obtaining during the sequence of take stock. Importance and benefits of assurance Independent professional opinion Confidence Pr offspringion of error and fraud Acceptance Recognition/reliability Credibility True that id factual, con profliga teation and reality equitable free from discrimination and bias Assurance never be absolute assurance provider never obtain the absolute level of assurance delinquent some limitations. So assurance never be absolute. Limitations of assurance engagement Over see the preparation of F.S. Inherent limitation Evidence obtain examination basis checking Estimates Nature of assurance root Targonk 01712-049032 Short time Shortage of man power Assurance engagement motion Obtaining the engagement Continuous peril assessment Engagement acceptance Scope of the engagement Planning the engagement Obtaining evidence Evaluation the precede of assurance work Concluding and handleing on the engagement Reporting to the engagement parties Keeping record analyze the objective of an canvas of F. S. is to enable the listener to express an opinion whether the F. S. re prep ared, in both hearty respects, in accordance with an applicable monetary reporting framework. There are many issues users want assurance on * Value for money studies Circulation report Cost/benefit report Due diligence Review of specialist craft activities indwelling study Report on website security department Fraud investigations Inventories and receivables report Internal direct report Reports on clientele plans or projections Examples of assurance engagement Local authority size up Bank scrutinise Insurance audit Pension scheme audit Charity audit Solicitors audit Environmental audit Branch auditExpectation gap difference between expectation level and unimaginative audit performance. Tarek 01712-049032 Company Act 1994 Chapter 2 (Process of Assurance) Scope/step/ mould of assurance engagement first of tuition of new client Enquiries from another(prenominal) fountain Document look into Previous listener Review rules, regulation and standards Assurance engagement letter 1. Starting Flow of communication auditor Vs client Address- To trusty pa rties/client 2. Body Introduction/reference focusing and auditors responsibility to F. S. Scope of audit work- running game limitation Other responsibilities . Conclusion Audit fees and other charges Conclusion mirror symmetry (depend on nature of business) Audit accepting an engagement Proposed auditor must(prenominal) communicate with previous auditor (on the permission of client). If their audit engagement date is effectual Refusal reasonable cause If any fraud/error in the client Assurance appointment considerations Ensure professionally qualified Ensure existing resources are adequate Obtain reference Communicate with previous auditor. Tarek 01712-049032 ** Read interactive questions and self test from manual of arms. Chapter 3 (Planning and Assignment)Planning is a process by which assignment willing be performed in an hard-hitting manner. Audit plan is a process by which auditor will perform all activities regarding audit in an effective manner. Audit stra tegy is a technique which sets scope, timing and direction of the audit and guides the development of the audit plan. Importance/ necessarys of audit plan Appropriate attention to grievous areas Identify potential problems and resolve timely Ensure the audit work done congruously and organized way Assigned the audit work to the particle of audit group Direction and supervision of audit work Facilitate review of workStructure of audit plan Ethical requirements Ensure team of engagement Establishing audit strategy Development audit plan including risk assessment outgrowth/audit test Determining the germane(predicate) characteristics Discovering key dates for reporting & others Determining physicalness & preliminary risk assessment Consideration team particles availableTarek 01712-049032 Key elements of an overall audit strategy Understanding the entities environment Understanding the accounting & internal get word system Risk and materiality Consequent n ature, timing and extent of procedures Co-ordination, direction, supervision and review Other matters Budget and fees Staffing lord skepticism An attitude of professional skepticism bureau the auditor makes a critical assessment with questioning mind, of the validity of audit evidence obtained and is alert to audit evidence that contradicts or bring into question, the reliability of documents and responses to enquiries and other teaching obtain from management and those charged with governance. Analytical procedure agency evaluation of financial information made by a study of come-at-able relationship among financial and non-financial data. firsts for risk assessment by using analytical procedure Interim financial information Budget Management information Non-financial information Bank and cash records VAT returns Board transactions Show ratio analysis formula (manual page 50) Materiality relates to the level of tolerable error that affects the conclusiveness of users a nd accountant. Tolerable error the maximum error that an auditor is accept in a tell of transactions or rests in the F. S. Tolerable error constituent (%) On sales 0. 5-01% Gross profit 0. -1% Total asset 1-2% Net asset 2-5% Profit before appraise 5% Profit after tax 5-10% Tarek 01712-049032 Audit risk the risk is define, that auditors give an inappropriate opinion on the F. S. Audit risk material statement risk (for co. ) + key oution risk (for auditor) Material misstate risk = inherent risk + overcome risk Inherent risk the susceptibility of an account balance or class of transaction to misstatement that could be material individually or when aggregated with misstatements in other balances or classes assuring there where no related internal holds.Characteristics of inherent risk Estimates of balances If co. is in botheration Seeking for fund raising Motivation of director/management (profit related issue) Choices of methods for financial transactions Control risk th e risk that a material misstatement would not be prevented, detected or corrected by accounting and internal reckon systems. Detection risk the risk that, auditors procedure will not detect or misstatement that exits in an account balance or class of transaction that could be material. go for assessing the audit risk Step 1 identify the risks throughout the process of obtaining and understanding the entity. Step 2 relate the risk to what can go wrong the effrontery level. Step 3 consider whether the risks are magnitude that could result in material misstatement. Step 4 consider the likelihood of risk considering material misstatement. Chapter 4 (Evidence and reporting) Documents all told information which obtain/gathered by the auditor during audit period is documents. Audit evidence all information/documents gathered by the auditor and on which based auditor conclude the opinion.Tarek 01712-049032 Test of control audit evidence obtains evaluating the effectiveness of control s in preventing/detecting and correcting material misstatement at the assertion level. Substantive procedure test of details of classes of transactions account balance and disclosure substantive analytical procedure. Quality/source of evidence foreign auditor entity written oral F. S. assertion level A) Class of transaction concomitant Completeness Accuracy Cut-off Classification B) A/C balance human race Rights and obligations Completeness rating and allocationC) Presentation and disclosure Occurrence Completeness Classification and understandability Accurate and valuation adequateness is the measure of quantity of audit evidence. Appropriateness is the measure of quality or reliability of audit evidence. F. S. assertion the presentations by management, explicit or otherwise that are embodied in the financial statement. Audit opinion Tarek 01712-049032 A) qualified B) non-qualified Qualified opinion 1. 2. 3. 4. modified scope of limitations adverse disclaimer Read self test and interactive question. Chapter 5 (introduction to internal controlBSA 315 internal Control Internal control is the process designed and effect by those charged with governance, management and other move to provide reasonable assurance about the entities objectives with record to reliability of financial reporting, effectiveness and efficacy of outgrowths and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Reason for internal control Minimizing business risk Ensuring the continuing effective function of the company Ensuring Co. complies with pertinent laws and regulations. Limitation of internal control Expense Human elements Unusual transaction Management oversee Regular monitoringComponents of internal control The control environment Risk assessment process entropy system Control activities All system should be monitored Tarek 01712-049032 Control environment the control environment includes the governance and management functions and the attit udes, awareness and actions of those charged with governance and management concerning the entities internal control and its importance in the entity. Audit committee a subsection of the board of directors which has a particular pursuit in the finance and accounting activities of the Co.Function/duties of audit committee To review the integrity of the F. S. To review the Co. internal financial control monitoring device the effectiveness of the Co. internal audit function To make recommendations to the board in relation to the external auditor Monitor the independence of the internal auditor To implement policy on the provision of non-audit service by the external auditor Entities risk assessment process the process by which management in a business identifies business risk relevant to financial reporting objectives and decides what actions to take to address those risks.Business risk The risks inherent to the Co. in its operations. It is risk at all levels of the business. Control activities The policies and procedures that help ensure that management directives are carried. Business risk assessment process Identify relevant business risk Estimate the impact of risks Asses the likelihood of occurrence Decide upon controls Reporting objectives includes the procedures and records designed to initiate, record, process and report entity transactions and to maintain accountability for the related assets, liabilities and equities.Types of control activities Authorizations fulfilance review Information processing physical control Segregation of duties IT control the internal control in a computerized environment includes both manual procedures and procedures designed to computer programs. Tarek 01712-049032 Application control are manual or automated procedures that apply to the processing of individual applications to ensures that transactions occurred, are authorized and are completely and correctly recorded and processed.General controls are pol icies and procedures that relate to many applications and support the effective function of application controls by helping to ensure the continued proper operation of information systems. General control examples Development of computer applications Prevention or detection of wildcat changes to programs Testing and documentation of program Controls to prevent unauthorized amendments to data files Controls to ensure continuity of operationsExamples of application control controls over input completeness controls over input accuracy authorization control processing control control over master file and standing data Steps to recording of internal control Narrative (short note, background information) Questioners/checklist Diagrammed (flow chart, organization chart, family trees and record of related parties) Internal control procedure Initiative Authorization Accuracy written text Documentation Tarek 01712-049032Chapter 6 (Revenue System) Risk objective on selling goods Order may be taken from customer who are not able to pay Order may be taken from customer who are paid after grand time Order may not recorded properly Taking steps to prevent this risk Goods and services are only supplied to customers with good trust rating Customers are encouraged to pay promptly Chapter 9 (Internal Audit) Internal Audit A monitoring activities established within an entity as a service to the entity.Its function includes, amongst other things, examining, evaluating and reporting to management and the directors on the adequacy and effectiveness of components of the accounting and internal control system. External Audit An audit carried out by an external. The objective of an external audit of financial statements is to enable auditors to express an opinion on whether the F. S. is prepared in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. difference of opinion between internal and external audit Subject Definition Reason Internal Audit . Is an activity design to add value and improve an organizations operation Audit report to the board of director or audit committee Audit works relate to the operations of the organization He/they are the employees of the Co. draw off some exception External Audit .. To express an opinion on F. S Reporting Relating to Relationship with the Co. Auditors report to the shareholder to Co. on the truth and lividness of the F. S Audits works to the F. S They are independent not the employee of the co. Internal Audit functions Monitoring internal controlTarek 01712-049032 Examining financial and operating information Review of the economy, efficiency and effectiveness of operations Review of compliance with laws and regulations Special investigations, for instance into suspected fraud Operational Audit Operational Audit is the review of operational process of the organization. They are also known as management or efficiency audit. Their prime objective is the monitoring if management performance, ensuring Co. policy is adhered to. Function of Operational audit Ensuring policies is adequate Ensuring policies work effectivelyChapter 10 (Documentation) Audit evidence Working paper with relevant evidence to draw opinion and helping assurance provider for assurance report. Audit Documentation Audit documentation is the record of procedures performed, relevant audit evidence obtained and conclusion related. Form and content/work of documentation Procedure of audit Risk identification Judgment Significance Problem/expectation Audit methodology Automated working paper Working paper package nonplus been developed which can make the documenting audit work much easier.Advantages of evidence Tarek 01712-049032 Risk and error reduce Key of analytical information Less time consuming Permanent audit filing Engagement letter Questioner Memorandum of Article and A/A Legal documents Detail history of business Board minutes of continuing relevant Previous F. S . Accounting system notes Current audit file F. S. punctuatelist Management details Review notes Letter of example Budget and summarized Management letter Notes of board minutes Communication with 3rd partiesWorking paper decoration arouse of client Balance sheet date Name of the preparer Date of preparation Subject of the working paper Name of reviewer Date of review Object of the work done Source of information attempt size determine The work done The result obtained Analysis of error Other significant observation The conclusion drawn Tarek 01712-049032 Tarek 01712-049032 Chapter 11 (Evidence and Sampling) Evidence All of the information used by auditor to drawn an opinion. Source to obtain evidence Inspection Observation Inquiry Confirmation Re-calculation Re-performance Analytical procedureTest of control Perform to obtain audit evidence about the effectiveness of controls in preventing or detecting and correcting material misstatement at the a ssertion level. Substantive procedure Audit procedure to detect material misstatement at the assertion level test of details of transactions. * Account balance * Substantive analytical procedure Computer assisted audit technique Dummy data Rent data Dummy data against verified copy Quality of audit evidence External Auditor Entity pen OriginalTarek 01712-049032 Analytical Procedure BSA 320 Audit reliability factors Analyzed Availability of information Accuracy Frequency Relevant of the information Comparability of the information Previous auditor Source of information about client Interim financial information Budgets Management accounts Non-financial information Bank and cash records Sales tax returns Board minutes client/3rd company Audit sampling Involve the application of audit procedure to less then100% of the items within an account balance or class transactions such that all sampling units have a change of survival of the fittest.Population Is the e ntire set of data from which a prototype is selected and about which an auditor wishes to draw a conclusion. Statistical sampling Is any approach to sampling that involves random woof of a sample, and use a probability theory to evaluate sample results, including measurement of sampling risk. Non-statistical sampling Is a substantive approach to inference, in that mathematical terms are not used consistently in determining sample size, selecting the sample, or evaluating sample result.Error Means either control deviations, when performing test of controls, or misstatements, when performing substantive procedure. Tarek 01712-049032 Expected Error Is the error that an auditor expects to be present in the population. Sampling units Are the individual items constituting in a population. Tolerable error Is the maximum error in the population that the auditor would be willingly to expect. Random selection Ensures that all items in the population have an equal chance of selection, e. g. y use of random number tables or computerized generator. ecological succession or block selection It may be used to check whether certain items have particular characteristics. Monetary unit sampling This is a selection method that ensures that, every CU1 in a population has an equal chance of being selected for testing. Anomalous error Means an error that arise an isolated event that has not recurred other than on specifically identifiable occasions and is therefore not representative of errors in the population.Sampling method random selection systematic selection haphazard selection sequence block selection monetary unit sampling Name of some data analytical software for auditor ACL (Audit postulate Language) IDEA ESCORT computer audit Active data for Excel Top CAAT for Excel ACL service Ltd Case ware international Intra com IT service Tarek 01712-049032 Information active Inc Reinvent data Tarek 01712-049032 Chapter 12 (Management Representation) Management Mean s officer (director and Co. secretary) and others who perform senior managerial functions.Elements of management representation letter Entity letter judgement To auditor and date Tarek 01712-049032 Chapter 13 (Substantive Procedure) Key issues/risk of non-current assets Right and obligations assertion Existence assertion Completeness assertion Valuation assertion Presentation and disclosure assertion Source of information/observation matters The non-current asset register Purchases invoices for assets during the year Valuation carried out by 3rd party Purchases deeds or receipt documents aim purchases documents of assets Physical inspection Depreciation calculationIntangible non-current asset means the assets which cannot touch or show but has a market value. Examples of intangible non-current assets Goodwill Patent in good order License and development cost etc. Key issues and sources of information of intangible non-current assets is as like as tangible non-cu rrent assets. Key issues/risk of line Existence Completeness Obsolete or damage goods Miscalculation Rights and obligations Cut-off dates Prevent risk of inventory The Co. control over inventory countingTarek 01712-049032 Auditors regular physical counting Check inventory register Physical verification from warehouse Check purchases invoices Check work-in-progress records for inventory Post-year-end sales invoices for inventory Post-year-end price lists for inventory Post-year-end sales Sources of information for non-current assets Invoices 3rd party valuation Auditors inspection Client schedule and calculation Source of information for inventory Auditors attendance at count Invoices 3rd party confirmation Client control over count Clients production scheduleInventory count procedure/various types of inventory count 1. organization of count Supervision by senior cater Tidying and marking Restriction and control movement during counting Identification of damaged, obsolete, slow moving and returnable goods 2. Counting systematic counting independence counting 3. Recording Serial numbering Information count records Quality, controls and work in progress counting Inward and outward counting Reconciliation with recordsTarek 01712-049032 Key issues of receivables Rights and obligations Valuation Source of information of receivables 3rd party confirmation Cash payment after date Key issues of bank Completeness Existence Rights and obligations Valuation Source of information about parties bank A/c Confirmation from bank Bank statement Client schedule Reconciliation with cash book Payable key issues Completeness Rights and obligations align valuation Source of information of A/P Suppliers statements Payable ledger records Payment documentsKey issues of long term liabilities Completeness Accuracy Disclosure Particular document Source of information of long term liabilities Loan documents Tarek 01712-049032 Statutory books Confirmations from lenders Client schedule Board minutes Client calculation Key issues of income statement Completeness Accuracy Steps for observing long term liabilities Compare opening balances to previous years working paper Test clerical accuracyCompare balance to nominal ledger Check nominal ledger Trace additions and repayments to entries in the cash book Confirm repayments with loan agreement Examine cancelled cheques Verify the borrowing limits Examine sign of board minutes Obtain direct confirmation from lenders Verify interest check Review any correspondence review minutes, cashbook and loan books. Chapter 14 (Codes of Professional Ethics) Fundamental principles of reckon of ethics Integrity Objectivity Professional competence and due care Confidentiality Professional behaviorIndependence of mind The state of mind that permits the expression of a conclusion without being affected by influence that comprise professional, allowing an in dividual to act with integrity. Independence in appearance Tarek 01712-049032 The avoidance of facts and circumstances that are so significant that a reasonable and informed 3rd party, having knowledge of all relevant information, including safeguard applied, would reasonably conclude a firms, or a member of the assurance teams, integrity, objectivity or professional skepticism have been compromised.Threats of code of ethics Self interest threat Self interest threat protagonism threat Familiarity threat Intimidation threat Management threat Safeguards of code of ethics Ethical training and experience Continuing professional development requirement integrated governance regulation Professional standards Regulatory monitoring and disciplinary procedure External review Chapter 15 Integrity Means that an accountant must be straightforward and honest. It implies fair dealings and truthfulness.Objectivity State of mind that exclude bias, prejudice and compromise and that give s fair and imperial consideration to all matters that are relevant to the task in hand, disregarding those that are not. Independence Is related to and underpins objectivity, it is freedom from situations and relationships. Self-interest threats are Financial interests Close business relationship Tarek 01712-049032 Employment with assurance client Partner on client board Family and personal relationship Gift and hospitality Loans and guarantees Overdue fees Percentage and contingent fees High percentage of fees Low-ballingFinancial interest Exits where an assurance firm has a financial interest in a client. Direct financial interest Exits where an assurance firm has a directly financial interest in a client. Immediate family means a spouse (or equivalent) or a dependent. Assurance team means all member of the engagement team for the assurance engagement and all others within the firm who can directly influence the outcome of the assurance engagement. Safeguards from inter est Disposing the interest Removing the individual from the team if required.Informed the client audit committee of the situation. Using an independent partner to review work if necessary Close business relationship will involve a commercial financial interest, which in addition to a self-interest threat, could cause an intimidation threat. Dual employment means the same person being employ by both an assurance firm and a client is not permitted. Safeguard from dual employment Modifying the audit strategy Involving an additional professional accountant Carrying out a quality control review of the engagementPartner on a client board mean a partner or employee of an assurance firm is also serve on the board of an assurance client. This is not permitted. This can also cause of self-review threat or a management threat. Tarek 01712-049032 Close family means parent, child or sibling who is not an immediate family member. Contingent fees fees calculated on a predetermined basis re lating to the outcome or result of a transaction or the result of the work performed. Safeguards from high percentage of fees Discussing the issues with audit committee Taking steps to reduce the ependency on the client Obtaining internal/external quality control review Consulting a 3rd party such as ICAB Self-review threat Service with assurance client Preparing accounting records an F. S Valuation service Tax service Internal audit service Corporate finance Other service Advocacy threat Legal service Corporate finance Contingent fees Familiarity threat Family and personal relationship with client Employment with assurance client Recent service with assurance client Long connector with assurance client RecruitmentIntimidation threat Close business relationship Family and personal relationship Assurance staff members move to employment with client Litigation The ICAB code sets out a framework that professional accountant can follow when seeking to resolve eth ical problems. It states that the professional accountant should consider Tarek 01712-049032 The relevant facts The relevant parties The ethical issues involve The fundamental principles related to the matter in question Established internal procedure Alternative course of actionChapter 16 (Confidentiality) The following security procedures are probably wise to prevent accidental disclosure of information Dont discuss client matter with any party of outdoors Dont discuss client matter in a public place Dont leave audit files un-attendant Dont leave an audit file in a car or unsecured place Dont remove audit working papers from the office unless strict necessary Dont work on electronic working papers on systems that do not have the necessary protectionInformation only be disclosed where consent has been obtained from the client, employer or other proper source If there is a public duty to disclose If there is a legal or professional right or duty to disclose Safeguard s of confidentiality Disclosure of the circumstances of the conflict Obtaining the informed consent of the client to act Establishing information barriers Regular review of the application of safeguards by a senior individual not involve with the relevant Ceasing to act Physical separation of teams. Show interactive questions and self-test. The End
at May 22, 2019
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
1. What are the functions, concepts and principles of legal opinion in education and development? (1. 1, 1. 2) The function of judging is a bureau to measure a prentices competence against agreed standards and criteria. The awarding system of the sparkicular qualification go out have an perspicacity strategy what impart state which criteria privations to be met to complete the compulsory and optional units and the best method for acquiring the manifest. A range of methods depart be utilize to judge whether a enddidate has staged the skills, fellowship and consciousness to be competent against the criteria.The tax tax tax tax tax tax assessor result need to ask themselves if the judgment process when put into intrust allow be Fair the given activities during estimate are relevant to the vistas needs and reason qualified adjustments are made so non to disadvantage any person. Reliable If the appraisal was carried out by a different assessor, in a dif ferent rear end, the results would be consistent. Valid the assessment is suitable to the qualification macrocosm assessed. Safe and manageable the assessor essential not put unnecessary demands on the kittydidate or their land colleagues in the place of occupation.Suitable for the panoramas needs before intend an assessment the assessor would need to take into account the candidates needs, their subject requirements and take into consideration any prior(prenominal) realizeing, addition entirelyy, plan suitable methods to be used. The assessment cycle to ensure the apprentice has met the deed and intimacy criteria required to gain the qualification achieved all aspects of the qualification successfully. The cycle provide begin with the initial assessment which will establish any prior learning or experience of the subject to be taken and will come out individual scholars needs.Further more than, diagnostic tests can recognize if a prentice has for instance, dys lexia. The second part of the cycle will be the assessment planning, where the assessor and scholarly person agree on the methods to be used for say, set goat dates and who will be involved, such as, work colleagues. Thirdly, the assessment activity will establish which methods to judge whether a candidate has demonstrated the skills, knowledge and understanding to achieve the required standard. The penultimate part of the cycle will be where the assessor take aims a finality as to whether the standard has been met and provide feedback to the learner.Lastly, progress will be reviewed and any changes to the assessment activities can be made. The assessor will use a range of Benchmarking will be used to ensure the learners performance is on target against the accepted standard of the subject area. This data will contribute to the quality assurance and development of best practice. 2. What is the role and responsibilities of the assessor? (1. 3) The role of the assessor is requir ed to be competent and knowledgeable with the standards of the awarding bole so they can explain the criteria to the candidate, thus the learner knows what they are on the job(p) towards.Subsequent to the assessment planning an initial assessment needs to have been carried out to identify any individual needs, prior learning, skills and knowledge the learner whitethorn have. When planning the assessment the assessor should have the relevant information of where the learner works and what they do, this will ensure the set units will be covered and correct methods are chosen. The assessor will use the assessment plan as a tool for assessing the learners competence and knowledge against the agreed m itary standard ensuring that it is fair, valid and reliable.The assessor mustiness clearly record all assessment decisions and show which criteria was met. Each conducted assessment will record achievements accurately and any demo provided by the learner must be go againsted by the a ssessor to ensure it is au consequentlytic. To ensure confidentiality the information will be available to share with those with a legitimate interest. After the assessment the assessor will provide constructive feedback to the learner concerning their achievements as soon as possible and identify any gaps in the learners knowledge and skills. At this stage the candidate will either plan to be reassessed or progress ontothe next assessment.The assessor will be responsible to the organisation, occupational standards and awarding organisation when planning, managing and delivering assessment and must maintain good practice and follow legislation throughout to maintain the wholeness of the qualification. 3. Explain the regulations and requirements relevant to assessment in possess area of practice(1. 4, 3. 4, 3. 5, 8. 1) The assessor will be required to follow a range of policies and practises set by the regulatory bodies of standards, for example, Ofqual, Sector skills council, Inst itute of learning. separate regulations such as, health and safety, comparability and change, data nourishion, risk assessment, etc will be discussed below. It is the obligation of the assessor to ensure that the higher up are carried out during the assessment process. For example, the assessor must abide by the health and safety rules of the candidates work place and report any unsafe practice or dangerous equipment. The need of wearing protective clothing and safety shoes may be required. The assessor or internal verifier must only intervene with an assessment is if the health and safety is placing someone in danger.Under the management of health and safety at work regulation 1999, the assessor must assess the risks to prevent any hazardous practices and locate information on who holds the first aid certificate and what the fire and emergency course of transaction is. The assessor is responsible to carry out a risk assessment to safeguard the learner during assessment and es tablish any risks which may occur during the assessment activities in the work place. While there is always a possibility of risk in any every day occurrence, the assessor has a job of care to notify of the risk and advice of the possible outcome regarding safety.It is the assessors responsibility to ensure all documentary shew is kept safe during outdoor(a) assessments and data kept secure. Any assessor who works with vulnerable adults or children will be required to have a criminal records bureau check before being allowed to work in that occupational area. The check will identify any unsuitable person and must be used to protect and safe guard adults and children at risk. The disability discrimination act legislated that no disabled person should be discriminated against be scram of a disability, whether it is a physical or kind impairment.In 2002 and 2005 the act was extended to include educational organisations. This meant that suitable provisions must be made for disabled persons to overcome any physical barriers and not be treated less favourably because of their disability. The initial assessment should clarify if the learner has any particular learning needs or disabilities to ensure equality and diversity needs are met. The assessor has a duty to ensure no learner is discriminated against everyone has an equal opportunity for learning and development.Assessment activities should reflect the diversity of the learner, for example, culture, language and ethnicity and not be biased to the person who produced them. Every person is entitled to learn in a safe environment, whether it be the assessor or learner. It is illegal to inflict corporal punishment on anyone and if restraint is required then it must follow the organisations strict guidelines on discipline. The copyright, Designs and Patents Act (1988) is one that the assessor should discuss with the learner at the start of the assessment process as it relates to the authenticity of their take wo rk and products.It is unlawful to use someone elses work as their own without referencing to the rightful owner, as this is plagiarism. The assessor must always ensure the learner signs and dates their own work, especially if it has been prepared on the computer for recognition that they are the original owner. The assessor will have confidential information about their learners, such as, name, age, birth date on record and under the data Protection Act all this information must be kept confidential and secure.If the information is kept on a computer, then it should be protected with a password that protects against other entering the system. If the information is paper based then it must be kept in a filing cabinet which is lockable. The learner can beseech to see any information held about them under The Freedom of Information Act 2002, so it is important to back up copies, if electronically stored in case of being deleted. The information should not be kept largeer than nec essary and the holder will need to register as a data user if the period is over 2 months.There may some occupational areas which require the candidate to wear a uniform, for example, a white tunic top if working in a restaurant or protective clothing, such as, reflective jacket, hard hat and safety boots if on a construction site. The assessor will need to dress in accordance with the health and safety regulations when doing an assessment in the work place with the learner. in one case the assessor has qualified they must register with the Institute for Learning and persist up with their continuing professional development.It is crucial that the assessor abide by the encrypt of professional practice to ensure they are working to the same standard and not under achieving. If the former should happen then it could have a melodramatic effect on the assessment message quality assurance when the external verifier carries out an inspection visit doubly a year. To ensure standards ar e being met and claim for certification is valid the external verifier will need to see a mixture of the candidates files and interview a variety of assessors.If the standards have been met and the external verifier is satisfied that the correct procedures are being followed the centre will receive a grade of 1-2. Unfortunately if the centre receives a grade of 3-5 then there is a possibility that they could have the direct claim situation and registration suspended until the matter is resolved. 4. Explain the strengths and limitations of at least 4 different assessment methods, making reference to how all(prenominal) method can rival the needs of individual learners. (2. 1) ASSESSMENT METHOD card Strengths.The notification method is an excellent opportunity for the assessor to take a holistic approach during assessment benefits are the assessment is viewed by the assessor, thus the enjoin is authentic, plus, approach and date effective. The holistic assessment can be while consuming so the assessor will need to plan the assessment so they can identify which learning outcomes from all units can be demonstrated at the same time. Knowledge based and performance based assessment can be linked with evidence which is natural occurring. The method garners a learners needs as they can carry on their normal work practice.If any prior learning evidence can be presented, such as a certificate or look statement and/or a professional word at the end of the assessment. Limitations It is necessary the assessor and candidate agree for a suitable time and place for the observation to take place. If the assessment is to be cost effective then the evidence must be collected during a absorb time when the just about evidence can be collected. If a witness testimony is to be used the assessor must drive a suitable person who has witnessed the learner do the chore, this must be arranged beforehand.The assessor must ensure that the candidate is confident enough to de monstrate their competence or else it could discourage them and waste time. The assessor must wait open disposed(p) throughout the observation and not offer advice or interfere even if they feel the candidate is doing something wrong. Assignments Strengths Assignments are an excellent opportunity for the learner to demonstrate knowledge and use research skills. The appellation can be set out so several aspects of qualification can be assessed. The learner needs are met as they are able to work at their own pace and in their own time.Limitations The learner must be had been taught all aspects of the syllabus beforehand. The assignment could be time consuming to write and may not be suitable to learners who have literacy difficulties, work full time or have families to incarnate. The assessor must assess each assignment individually and provide written feedback. Witness Testimony Strengths The witness can confirm competence or achievements of the learner as they will have discover ed them in their normal practice of work, someone who works with the candidate to confirm the learners competence in a certain(prenominal) area of criteria.The learner may feel more confident displaying skills in front of a colleague rather than being observed by the assessor. Witness statements are useful as they can fill in any gaps. The method would suit the needs of someone who is performing the task frequently. Limitations The assessor must ensure the suitability of the witness and that they are experienced in the occupational area, the assessor needs to confirm this by seeing evidence, such as a copy of their CV or certificates. The witness statement must be authentic and the assessor will need to check this.A witness cannot confirm the learners competence as they are not an assessor. Oral questions and answers Strengths The assessor could use questioning as a way to meet gaps in evidence questions could be adapted to meet the criteria. A question could be used to increase th e candidates thinking about a certain task rather than performing it. Furthermore, it gives the assessor an insight as to how much knowledge the candidate has in their occupational area. This method could be used during an observation or used later after the observation it would meet the needs of a learner who has difficulty with written English.The assessor would need to know the candidate understands what is being asked in the question or else the learner may struggle to answer correctly. Limitations The assessor would need to be careful not to ask closed in(p) or leading questions as this could be viewed as being subjective as the assessor could be putting words into the learners mouth. The most beneficial questions would be open, probing and hypothetical to get the most from knowledge and understanding of the learner. 5. What key factors do you need to consider when planning assessment? (3. 1) WHAT.The assessor will need to discuss and be in agreement with what criteria is bein g met and how it is being assessed and others involved. The assessor will need to talk about what the learners job role entails and how this is relevant to the unit in question. This will enable the assessor to plan and agree with the learner the types of evidence most suitable for demonstrating competence and the best methods for assessment to be used. The assessor must crystallise sure the evidence is appropriate to meet the specified performance criteria and where possible knowledge to be assessed through performance or professional discussion or questioning.The assessor must ensure the learner is ready to demonstrate their competence and understands the processes involved, for example targets. WHEN The assessor and learner will need to agree when the assessment will take place and arrange a suitable date, time and duration when the most evidence can be collected and if the holistic approach could be used to obtain evidence. It would be beneficial for the assessor if the assessm ent took place during a busy period of learner work activity.However, the assessor must ensure the learner is not taken away from their duties for an unnecessary length of time or cause disruption to the business operations. WHERE The assessor Assessment would ideally take place in the learners work place as this where the most evidence can be collected. As the assessor will be entering the learners work place it is important to involve the employer in the planning process. However, for non-performance evidence it could be more cost effective to assess via Skype, e-mail or to arrange a meeting in a suitable place of convenience, not necessarily the learners work place.HOW The learner will want to know how the assessment will take place and what will be involved during the assessment. The assessor will need to discuss and agree with the learner the most suitable method of assessment to collect the most evidence. The assessor must ensure the assessment is fair, unbiased and cost effec tive by making the best use of time if the learner is required to produce any prior evidence then this must be arranged in advance of the assessment. Holistic assessment in the learners work place would be beneficial for it is naturally occurring evidence.The assessor would use observation, witness testimony and professional discussion for performance evidence and multiple choice questions, verbal questioning and assignments for knowledge and understanding. The assessor will make a judgement on the evidence and decide whether the learner has demonstrated enough to meet the criteria or not. The assessor will need to arrange how and when feedback will be given to the learner to attend to any performance issues. 6. Explain the benefits of holistic assessment and how you would plan for holistic assessment (3. 2).The assessor is responsible for ensuring that methods used during holistic assessment covers several aspects of the performance and knowledge criteria from different units. This will ensure the assessment is cost effective make evidence collection and demonstration of competence more efficient. The assessor would need to plan the assessment before it took place to ensure that any particular requirements of the learner are taken into account and the assessment is adapted to meet their individual needs. For instance, holistic assessments will benefit learners who have dyslexia or literacy difficulties.Holistic observation can include oral questioning and minimize the amount of written work the learner has to do. Thus they are not excluded or disadvantaged by having learning difficulties. If the learner has a disability then the assessor should make sure the learner has extra time to complete the assessment tasks and is given any support needed. Moreover, any learner with difficulties are entitled to have reasonable adjustments made to ensure they have the equality of opportunity and support to enable them access assessment.Furthermore, if the learner has dif ficulties then the individual learning plan will agree short term targets for achievement, assessment strategies and review dates. The benefits of holistic assessment are that the assessor is able to observe the candidate at work in natural occurring situations. The candidate would be able to demonstrate several aspects of the qualification and cover more than one unit at the same time by taking a performance unit which incorporates parts of a knowledge unit.Holistic assessment should ideally take place in the learners work environment and the candidates job role should be discussed with to establish any prior learning they have, to identify which units could be covered at the same time. By doing this it would reduce the amount of visits needed to the candidates work place, make the best use of time and ensure the assessment is cost-effective. 7. Why is it important to involve the learner and others in the assessment process? (4. 1)A learner should be involved in the assessment proc ess so they can understand why they are doing assessment activities and the purpose of providing evidence of competence. The candidates involvement will enable them to remain motivated as they will have the opportunity to add their own input, analyse their own experience and understanding. Without support the learner could become confused and inadequacy enthusiasm, but if others, such as the assessor and employer helped them to achieve their aim, it will give the learner ego motivation and supercharge them to remain positive through the assessment process.At some stage of the assessment process it may be necessary for someone other than the assessor to provide evidence of the learners competence in the work place. The witness must be known by the learner and experienced in the candidates occupational area, perhaps a line manager. 8. Give examples of the types of information that should be made available to learners and others involved in the assessment process (4. 2) At the init ial assessment the learner will have taken a skills test which is an analysis of the learners skills so they are aware of current skills and areas for development.The learner should be provided with all documentation they need for the award, such as, assessment plans, individual learning plans, feedback sheets, information on the company carrying out the assessment and the assessors contact details, phone number and email address. Additionally, a copy of the complaint and appeal procedure, equality and diversity Policies, how to contact the assessor for cancelling visits and information on health and safety 9. What are the benefits of peer and self assessment? (4. 3).The benefits of peer and self assessment are the learner develops skills, such as listening, observing and questioning and has a greater involvement in their own learning process. The peer and learner can understand the role and the need for assessment better. It allows for greater understanding of the criteria for achi evement and how it is judged, thus, encouraging the individual to take responsibility for their own learning. The learner will develop analytical skills and improve self awareness of strengths and weaknesses and identify opportunities for improvement.Furthermore, develop the ability not only to assess their own work but that of others, thus developing analytical skills and use reflective practice of their own performance. When a learner assesses their own progress and those of their peers, they will learn to take personal responsibility of how to make a decision and provide feedback as to why that decision was made. 10. How can assessment arrangements be adapted to meet the needs of individual learners? (4. 4).The learner is entitled to a fair assessment and the assessor needs to use the most relevant assessment methods for the learner to demonstrate their ability. The assessor must take into consideration that not all learners are the same and treat the candidate as an individual, taking into account any requirements they talent have. For example, the assessor needs to consider a learners work pattern involved working shift patterns and agree a suitable time for assessment which does not disrupt working practice and make the most of the meeting.Furthermore, confidentiality issues must be taken into consideration and reflection of individual learning styles. If the learner has dyslexia, learning difficulties or English is the second language then the assessor must work with the learner to establish which method of assessment would be more beneficial to them. The assessor will need to vary the methods to keep the learner motivated and extra time given to learners who have difficulties and ensure the learner understands what is being said to them. Feedback should be given as soon as possible to ensure the learner remains interested and motivated.11. Explain how you judge evidence and make assessment decisions, making reference to the criteria and assessment req uirements (5. 1, 5. 2) The assessment plan will need to be agreed by the assessor and learner to which assessment methods will be used to cover the entire criteria standard. The assessor needs to ensure that the assessment is valid, authentic, efficient, fair and reliable. At least four different methods would be used during assessments these could be observation, evidence of knowledge, witness statements and professional discussion.Any prior achievement and experience of the learner will be taken into account as long as it is relevant to assessment of their competence it would not be cost effective to have a candidate repeat an activity they had already acquired in the past. However the assessor must have proof that evidence is authentic by either asking for a copy of certificate or a witness statement and the evidence is current and relevant to the occupational standards. The assessor will review the evidence and assess it against the required elements of the qualification, it wil l allow for a decision to whether the candidate is competent or not yet competent.Competence can be awarded if the evidence is * Valid * Reliable * Sufficient * Authentic * afoot(predicate) * Safe The assessor must abide by the Equality Act 2010 to not discriminate or harass against protected characteristics where fairness might be compromised. 12. Explain the procedures for and importance of quality assurance and standardisation. (6. 1, 6. 2) Quality assurance is important as it ensures the national standards are being maintained. The internal verification procedures will reminder equal opportunities and access the decisions made by the assessor are fair, valid and reliable.The internal verifier will use a range of methods to confirm that the assessment is meeting the requirements of awarding bodies. Methods used could be through observation, questioning, and professional discussion or sample the portfolio. It is vital that the assessor is assessing according to regulations and g uidelines from awarding bodies, qualification and conviction framework and keeps accurate records from assessments to create an audit trail for internal and external verification.To ensure all assessment decisions are consistent and fair the assessor will be back up to attend meetings with colleagues involved with the same subject and their internal verifier, to ensure they all understand the units they are assessing and looking for similar evidence. To compare assessment decisions and share good practice with colleagues will help the assessor to develop skills, up date knowledge and personal development. However, it is not compulsory to attend the meeting, the assessor could standardise their practice by reviewing standards and documents online. 13.Explain the appeals and complaints procedure (6. 3) The assessor should provide the learner with a written copy of the complaints and appeal procedure which meets the requirements of the awarding body and discuss this with them in the assessment planning session. If at any time during the assessment process the learner has a complaint or feels a decision the assessor has made is unfair to them, then the learner will know who to go to with their issue and how it will be followed up. However, before this stage is reached the assessor should encourage an informal discussion with the learner to see if the issue can be resolved.If the learner is not confident about discussing it with the assessor then it may be necessary to involve the internal verifier. However if the complaint or appeal remains unresolved then this must be put in composing to the chief executive who will look into and respond within 5 working days. If the learner is still unsatisfied with the outcome then they can request the complaint or appeal is investigated by an independent panel, which will consist of an independent assessor and internal verifier.The panel will investigate the appeal or complaint and notify of their decision within 14 workin g days. If at this stage the complaint or appeal has still not been rectified then the learner should contact the awarding body NCFE, whose details will be given once it has reached this stage. 14. Why is the management of information important? (7. 1) The assessor will need to ensure that any documentation acquired during the assessment process is following the national standards for assessment and verification and be aligned with the centre and awarding body policies.Each document must be accurate stating which assessment methods where used, whether, observation, oral or written. Furthermore, they must show that both candidate and assessor agreed to how the evidence will be obtained and the decision made as to whether it was achieved or not. It is essential that any document is signed, dated and stored correctly to ensure data protection and confidentiality. Other types of documentation could be completed log books, action plans, feedback comments, learner records or anything whi ch records the candidates achievement.It is imperative that the information is managed professionally as the assessor could find themselves in breach of laws and regulations, such as, data protection Act if they fail to comply. Failure to manage information correctly could result in having complaints and appeals made against the assessor and have a dramatic effect on the assessment centre quality assurance when the external verifier carries out an inspection visit twice a year.To ensure standards are being met and claim for certification is valid the external verifier will need to see a mixture of the candidates files and interview a variety of assessors. If the standards have been met and the external verifier is satisfied that the correct procedures are being followed the centre will receive a grade of 1-2. Unfortunately if the centre receives a grade of 3-5 then there is a possibility that they could have sanctions placed upon them and lose their direct claim status and registrat ion suspended until the matter is resolved.15. Why should you give the learner feedback? (7. 2) Feedback is an important tool for learning and development and to improve performance and motivate the learner. The learner will have a better understanding of how they have progressed during assessments. After the assessor has carried out an assessment they would need to give feedback to the candidate as soon as possible by either verbal communication or written. If verbal is used via phone or face to face, then this must be back up by a written copy.The assessor should include information about achievement in relation to the criteria and any comments should provide detailed advice on how to cover any gaps between current performance and the target aimed for. The candidate should be encouraged to ask questions regarding the feedback to help them understand how the assessor had reached their decision. This would also aid the assessor to reflect upon their role and evaluate if the assessm ent process was fair, valid and reliable and the assessment methods used was the most appropriate for the candidates needs.If the candidate did not meet the required standard then the assessor should give constructive feedback which would focus more on the activity or work produced rather than the candidate. Constructive feedback is part of a successful assessment as the learner will know what they have achieved or need to develop. Thus the learner will be encouraged to take more responsibility of their own learning development and deepen their understanding of the criteria. Feedback should be given on a 2. 1 scale, known as the sandwich approach.It should start with positive comments, then the areas which need to be improved lastly, the assessor should end the feedback on a positive to encourage the candidate to keep interested, motivated and confident. 16. What are the key policies and procedures that relate to assessment? For example happy delivery policy and NCFE policies and p rocedures etc. Give a brief explanation of what each one is. (8. 1) The assessor will need to follow policies and procedures additionally to those mentioned in question 3, for example lambents delivery policy states the following points Brights delivery policy sates the following pointsOnce the candidates deposit has been cleared and relevant paperwork is complete the candidate will receive their registration pack within 48hrs Following this the instruct will contact the candidate within 48 hours Mentors can be contacted mon fri 9am 6pm sat 10-1 Alternately leave a message and the mentor will contact the candidate within 4 hours Once all theory and practical assessments are complete candidates will receive their certificate. Under Brights delivery policy the following procedures relate to assessment Quality audit of completed Individual Learning Plans Quali.
at May 21, 2019