Saturday, August 31, 2019
Policing in American Society Kathleen Kloos CJA 214 November 8, 2011 Douglas Edwards Policing in American Society The relationship between the U. S. government and all policing organizations throughout the U. S. is necessary because policing organizations cannot function without government support. Government provides support in the form of training, civilian staff, funding, corrections, and judicial support (Grant, 2008). Administrative support from the U. S. overnment can be seen by looking at the Office of the Coroner, which has the responsibility to investigate violent or suspicious deaths. This office determines cause of death and provides the proof of a homicide, or crime, to the law enforcement agency to pursue criminal charges. U. D. government changed their structure in regards to law enforcement and investigation after the events of September 11, 2001. Many departments and agencies became restructured to answer to either the Department of Homeland Security or the Department of Justice (Grant, 2008.The Department of Homeland Security oversees: Customs and Border Protection Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Transportation Security Administration (TSA) U. S. Coast Guard U. S. Secret Service The Department of Justice is in charge of: Drug Enforcement Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives U. S. Marshals Service Federal Bureau of Prisons The relationship between the U. S. government and policing agencies can be described as co-dependent.Neither can exist without the other. Decisions handed down by the U. S. Supreme court dictate future police procedures. Cases such as Mapp v. Ohio, Miranda v. Arizona, and Fuhrman v. Georgia have changed the way police agencies investigate and charge offenders who eventually end up in prison. Police are no longer able to question a suspect without first advising the suspect of their Miranda rights (Miranda v. Ariz ona). Illegal search and seizure is no longer admissible in court (Mapp v. Ohio).Cruel and unusual punishment is no longer tolerated (Fuhrman v. Georgia) (AllGov, 2011). The criminal justice system exists by making each branch dependent upon the other. Police agencies investigate the crime, take custody of the suspect, recommend charges to be filed against the offender, then hand the case off to the judicial branch to adjudicate. Once the case has been tried, if the defendant has been convicted, or pled guilty, the corrections department takes over and makes sure the defendant serves his/her sentence.The impact of this relationship on American society insures that the citizens of this country feel safe. The impact shows criminals that society will not tolerate crimes against society. This relationship is a constant work in progress. Just like any relationship. References Gov, A. (2011). AllGov. Retrieved from http://www. allgov. com/Agency/Federal_Law_Enforcement_Training_Center Gra nt, H. B. , & Terry, K. J. (2008). Law Enforcement in the 21st Century (2nd ed. ). Unknown, AZ: Pearson Education.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Rosetta Craft-Jones English Coma I Rough Draft My song Is Love on Top by Beyond. Beyond wrote love on top because she wanted to express how Jay Z makes her feel through the years on a daily basis through song. Throughout the years Beyond has had different songs dedicated to different people but this is a first to the one she loves. Which is good thing because Beyond and Jay Z are very private when It comes to there relationship. Which I'm going to give you briefing which led up to the song Love On Top. Narrative) She had success in the past year of 2011, Beyond won a Grammar for Love On Top for best dance in a video. Also during the performance at the Video Music Awards, while performing Love On Top she announced to Jay Z and the world she was pregnant (which was so spontaneous). She's also happy about how there able to keep the tabloids out of there life and they keep things to them selves. Which has been that way since there courtship began in 2002. Beyond was so head over heels wi th Jay Z she moved from Houston to NY. Example) When Jay Z and Beyond met It was for a song collaboration for the song 02 Bonnie and Clyde. There where speculations then but it wasn't confirmed until he song collaboration Crazy In Love came out that they where announced as a official couple.The couple went on to do other collaborations such as That's how you like It and upgrade you. The couple came together In song to express there feelings for each other, But love on Top was Bounce's education solo song to Jazzy. They are truly a power house couple. Description) By Beyond announcing the pregnancy of there baby on the Video Music Awards while performing Love On Top today's was a heartfelt moment. Due to Beyond miscarrying the couples first child Just two years prior. Despite the rumors baby girl Blue Vive came in this World in January 2012. Jay Z has always made beyond happy you can tell by how she enhanced his career to ownership for his own record label, basketball team, etc. Beyo nd really did an Upgrade on Sean Carter A. K. A. Jay Z. Despite how her father Mathew Knowles felt about Jay Z , Bounce's feelings didn't change towards Jay Z.Jay Z was what Beyond was looking for, The bad boy business type. The couple had a very intimate and private seven year courtship. That led to a private marriage on April 4, 2008. Throughout the years trials, rumors, and success Beyond and Jay Z remained together and that is why her love is on top. Love On Top Honey, honey I can see the stars all the way from here, Can't you see the glow on the window pane? I can feel the sun whenever you're near Every time you touch me I Just melt anyhow everybody asks me why I'm smiling out from ear to ear. They say love hurts)But I know (It's goanna take the real work) Nothings perfect, but it's worth it after fighting through my fears, And finally you put me firstborn it's you. , You're the one I love. You're the one I need. You're the only one I see. Come on baby it's you. You're the one that gives your all. You're the one I can always call. When I need you make everything stop. Finally you put my love on top. Oho! Come on Baby. You put my love on top, top, top, top, top. You put my love on top. Oho 000! Come on baby.You put my love on top, top, top, top, top. My love on top. My love on top. Come on Baby I can feel the wind whipping past my face. As we dance the night away. Boy your lips taste like a night of champagne. As I kiss you again, and again, and again and again. Now everybody asks me why I'm smiling out from ear to ear. (They say love hurts)But I know (It's goanna take the real work) Nothings perfect, but it's worth it after fighting wrought my fears. And finally you put me first. Baby it's you. You're the one I love. You're the one I need.You're the only one I see. Come on baby it's you. You're the one that gives your all. You're the one I can always call. When I need you make everything stop. Finally you put my love on top. 000! Baby. You put my love on top, top, top, top, top. You put my love on top. Oho 000! Come on baby. You put my love on top, top, top, top, top. My love on top. Baby it's you. You're the one I love. You're the one I need. You're the only thing I see. Come on baby it's you. You're the one that gives your all. You're the one that always calls.When I need you baby everything stops. Finally you put my love on top. Baby. You're the one I love. Baby you're all I need. You're the only one I see. Come on baby it's you. You're the one that gives your all. You're the one I always call. When I need you everything stops. Finally you put my love on topiary. Cue You're the one that I love. Baby, you're the one that I need. You're the only thing I see. Baby baby it's you. You're the one that gives your all. You're the one that always calls. When I need you everything stops. Finally you put my love on top
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Breast Cancer Essay Cancer is not just one disease but rather a group of diseases. All forms of cancer cause cells in the body to change and grow out of control. Most types of cancer cells form a lump or mass called a tumor. Cells from the tumor can break away and travel to other parts of the body. There they can continue to grow. This spreading process is called metastasis. When cancer spreads, it is still named after the part of the body where it started. For example, if Breast Cancer Essay spreads to the lungs, it is still breast cancer, not lung cancer. Another word for cancerous is malignant. So a cancerous tumor is called malignant. But not all tumors are cancer. A tumor that is not cancer is called benign. Benign tumors do not grow and spread the way cancer does. They are usually not a threat to life. A few cancers, such as blood cancers (leukemia), do not form a tumor. Most kinds of cancer are named after the part of the body where the cancer first starts. Breast cancer begins in the breast tissue. This article refers only to breast cancer in women. Men can also get breast cancer, although this is rare. Women.com, pp. 6 Inside the breasts are glands that produce and release milk after a woman has a baby. The glands that make the milk are called lobules and the tubes that connect them to the nipple are called ducts. The breast itself is made up of lobules; ducts; and fatty, connective, and lymphatic tissue. There are several types of breast tumors. Most are benign; that is, they are not cancer. These lumps are often caused by fibrocystic changes. Cysts are fluid-filled sacs, and fibrosis refers to connective tissue or scar tissue formation. Fibrocystic changes can cause breast swelling and pain. The breasts may feel lumpy and sometimes there is a clear or slightly cloudy nipple discharge. Benign breast tumors are abnormal growths, but they do not spread outside of the breast and they are not life-threatening. Lawrence, pp. 54 Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, other than skin cancer. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, after lung cancer. Many great doctors predicts that there will be about 184,200 new cases of invasive breast cancer in the year 2000 among women in this country and about 41,200 deaths from the disease. Breast cancer also occurs among men, although much less often. Death rates from breast cancer declined significantly during 1992 to 1996, with the largest decrease in younger women both white and black. This decline is probably the result of better detection and improved treatment. We do not yet know exactly what causes breast cancer, but we do know that certain risk factors are linked to the disease. A risk factor is something that increases a persons chance of getting a disease. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, such as smoking, can be controlled. Others, like a persons age or family history, cant be changed. Lee, pp. 124 While all women are at risk for breast cancer, the factors listed below can increase the chances of having the disease. Some studies suggest that long-term use (10 years or more) of estrogen replacement therapy, sometimes called hormone replacement therapy, for relief of menopause symptoms may slightly increase the risk of breast cancer. This risk applies only to current and recent users. A womans breast cancer risk returns to that of the general population within 5 years of stopping ERT. Replacement therapy also lowers the risk of heart attacks and bone fractures; therefore, women should talk to their doctors about the pros and cons of using ERT. At this time, there is no certain way to prevent breast cancer. For now, the best strategy is to reduce risk factors whenever possible and follow the guidelines for finding breast cancer early. A personal or family history of breast cancer may make genetic testing an option for some women. About 50%-60% of women with certain genetic changes (mutations) will develop breast cancer by the age of 70. a woman has these mutated genes, but it cannot predict whether a woman will get breast cancer. Genetic testing is expensive and is not covered by some health plans. People with positive results might not be able to get insurance, or coverage might only be available at a much higher cost. You need .
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Final Strategic Plan - Essay Example Also, the strategy designed by the firm should be highly compatible to provide the needed push to the organization so that it can gain leverage out of the potential business opportunities existing in the market, while using the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s existing strengths and resources. In the current times, the trend is to design strategic objectives which are SMART in nature. To be more specific, SMART framework stands for factors like specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (Frey & Osterloh, 2002, p. 234). In this particular case, it needs to be identified that the existing opportunities of Super Fit Gym are the factors of potential growth of the population in the upcoming days as well as the highly convenient pricing of the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ services. Hence, the following strategies can be designed: 1. The first strategy will be to continuously engage in the process of marketing so as to create awareness about the GymÃ¢â¬â¢s services. 2. The second strategy will be to engage in recruiting highly experienced and skilled trainers and experts, so as to provide the best gym services to the customers. 3. The third strategy will be to engage in the process of designing a highly attractive promotion package (Verma, 2012, p. 614). 4. The final strategy will be to periodically engage in customer satisfaction survey and introduce necessary changes in the service offerings that are required from time to time. Implementation of the strategies While concentrating on the process of implementation of the strategies, it needs to be stated that the SMART factors need to be implemented to the maximum extent possible. Hence, talking in regard to the first strategy, it can be said that for the purpose of value communication of the services, Super Fit Gym, to the desired target audience, a proper marketing campaign needs to be executed. While engaging in the marketing campaign, the gym should set a time line of around 45 days for execution. The second strategy discusses th e factor of recruiting experts and highly experienced trainers. For this, the Gym can conduct performance based recruitment. This particular move will help Super Fit Gym to acquire high quality human resources who will be acting as the main deliverer of services and who will be highly critical in the developing the brand factor as well as customer satisfaction of the target audience. The third strategy, which talks about promotion, needs to be executed in phase by phase manner. In order to gather members of the target audience in a rapid note, the gym should consider providing price discount on the memberships to the customers who opt for early registrations. These promotion based discounts need to be rolled for a period of two weeks in a time period of every three months. This will help in attracting new customers to the fitness organization. The fourth strategy needs to be conducted for measuring customersÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction. For measurement of the value of the services, the fit ness organization should be conducting satisfaction surveys after the end of every two months from the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s existing customers. Actions to address ethical, legal, and regulatory issues Since Super Fit Gym provides service based offerings to the customers, the values and services provided are
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
12-1 - Assignment Example The bidding assists us on quality equipment, supplies and services. This will help limit cases of fraud and abuses of office by those who are mandated with ensuring supplies are made to the company. In this particular scenario, one can tell that the contractor and the health facility are the major players in the process of coming up with ways of ensuring transparency in the process. However, patients are the main beneficiaries of supplies since they require the facilities to keep fit. Medicare is the way in which patients will pay for the services they get. The coverage is very important to all because it makes it easier for them to get treatment. Equipment supplied to the facility have to be included in the Medicare program but have to be accounted for before one can look at the probability of benefitting from these services (Michael, 2004). The most fundamental thing that one has to contend with is the fact that the terms and conditions that are set apart by the companies which par ticipate in the agreement, have to adhere to the terms they state in the documents. The parties involved in this agreement are mainly the suppliers and the facility. Many contracts have been cited as being done in fraudulent ways making many institutions to lose a great deal of their financial resources. This is where the competitive bidding comes in to ensure that the best is chosen to conduct the supplies and involve the public in making decisions for effective services. In the long run, patients end up paying for the amount of money spent in handling these processes given that they are charged for services offered. They must be involved in the process and included in making it a routine to use the Medicare program to educate them on ways of identifying the best services and how they can control what goes on in the facility (Michael, 2004). The patient has to make private arrangements between them and the suppliers
Monday, August 26, 2019
M2A1 - Q3 - Essay Example In the case of inflation, an organization can undergo a huge loss since the manufacturing cost will be affected. In the same case, the government issues out regulatory restriction against a certain product. If the government burns a trade of a certain product, it means that the organization will have to dispose of and undergo loss. Regional conflict also will affect the market status in that; individual will not be willing to shop from a certain communities businesses (Newton, 2011). Organization culture affects the progress of the company. Organization whose employees work under different culture collapses latter. In order to manage culture, a leader must make the culture a priority. This can be achieved by uniting, refocusing and regrouping the workers to have a team and winning environment. The leader should also change the negative energy to a positive one. This can be done by utilizing the challenges at hand and complains to generate new ideas, path of success and innovation (Newton, 2011). The leaders should also meet with the company and share the vision and fiscal status to ensure that everything is handled before it becomes a challenge. Leaders should share a positive vision to employees and ensure that each person in the organization understands and rally around a vision. This will ensure employee motivation since they will fell as if they are attached and also are part of the company and be motivated to work and achieve the visions (Gordon, 2014). In conclusion, the continuity and progress of the organization is in the hands of the leaders. Leaders should be conversant with the leadership strategies, which can bring about organizational motivations. Despite the variables available, leaders should be able to use the leadership strategies to ensure organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s progress and
Sunday, August 25, 2019
The Court Process - Essay Example I hope that you are well.Ã Recently, I spoke to you regarding your arrest for trespass of a building and theft of a laptop computer contrary to section 91 (b) of the Theft Act of 1968.You indicated that you would like to enter a plea of not guilty.Ã I want you to understand that a plea of Ã¢â¬Å"not guiltyÃ¢â¬ does not necessarily mean that you will get off at your trial.The offense you were charged with was a trial by the way which means it could be heard in either the Magistrate or the Crown Court.Ã There are pros and cons of having a case tried in either court.Ã The Crown Court is superior to the MagistrateÃ¢â¬â¢s Court and the judge has greater sentencing powers. Additionally, there is a jury associated with the Crown Court and they tend to let off more defendants than the MagistrateÃ¢â¬â¢s Court.Ã However, in the MagistrateÃ¢â¬â¢s Court the case will be heard sooner and there would be no jury involved.Ã The MagistrateÃ¢â¬â¢s Court will probably decid e that they can take the case and it will not have to go to the Crown Court.Ã Because only one out of three eyewitnesses to the theft was able to pick you out in the ID procedure, that could work in your favor.Ã You requested that I apply for bail. You have the right to request bail under the Bail Act of 1976.Ã However, it is likely that the prosecution will raise objections to bail based on the fact that you failed to surrender to bail when you committed the offense of 3 years ago and a further offense whilst on bail for the TWOC (taking a vehicle without consent).
Technological Convergence - Essay Example The essay "Technological Convergence" covers the overview of the design and technological features of the iPhone 4S cellphone. The iPhone 4 S cellphone has some of the most advanced features that can be found on a hand held communication device. The primary reason why I bought this phone is its simplicity despite having many features. iPhone 4S has a large screen with retina display technology makes it possible to view a lot of information on a single display without compromising the quality. The accelerator technology keeps everything on the screen in an upright position even when the phone changes orientation. The touch screen technology makes it possible to have a large screen with the inbuilt touch keypad. The best technology is I Cloud application. iCloud technology enables the user to communicate with other devices such as computers, iPads, PDAs remotely without connecting to them via cable connections. For instance, I usually send or retrieve music and video files from my computer without using the USB cable. I use my iPhone 4 S to play video games that can project to HDTV by use of AirPlay technology. With the 3G internet technology, I can move files and videos through the internet at a speed of 10 Mbps. The most intelligent feature is the Siri technology that makes it possible to communicate verbally with the phone. I talk and command the iPhone just as I would to a human being. With its two core processors in the A5 microchip, it is the fastest phone that I have ever used especially for gaming.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
The Chinese dragon and its influence on Christianity in China - Essay Example Generally, dragons have held positive connotations in culture of the Chinese since the time of the Song dynasty, in AD 960-1279. The Chinese made prayers to the dragon for rain. In Chinese culture, the dragon has been used as a symbol of imperial power; in fact, the emperor wore a dragon robe, reigned from a dragon throne and was thought to be a dragon incarnation (Yang 28-29). After several centuries, the dragon was chosen by the then Chinese Emperor Qing, to represent the Chinese nation. The dragon is apparently, today the most favourable of zodiac animals in china; the dragons perform dances often clad in red, during the Chinese New Year. Since the time that Christianity made its way into China, most Christian believers have held the view that the Biblical and the Chinese dragons are very distinct creatures and have ultimately accepted them; however, there are other shunned Chinese dragons, arguing that they are demonic, just as the biblical one. This paper shows that the dragon-Chinese dragon has become an important but yet controversial symbol in China, greatly influencing the interpretations of Christianity by Chinese people. A closer look at the dragon throughout the history of Chinese Christianity shows greater influence and a process of both enculturation and indigenization with regards to how the dragon is conceived in both traditional Chinese and Christian Chinese (Yang and An 48). The difference and or equivalence between the biblical dragon and the Chinese dragon drawn in the mid-19th century by Chinese individuals as well as by religious figure from the west that brought Christianity. The leader of the Taiping Rebellion between 1814 and 1864, Hong Xiuquan, considered himself as having being commissioned by God to slay the serpent of Revelation; the red big dragon; he also referred to the Manchu rulers as demons/serpents. This consideration of the Chinese dragon as equivalent to the biblical/RevelationÃ¢â¬â¢s dragon is evident in his condemnation of the popular rain dragon from the Eastern Sea, considered by the Chinese to traditionally bring rain (Michael 39).The second in command to Hong Xiuquan, Hong RenÃ¢â¬â¢gan is also seen to understand the existence of the controversy concerning the dragon. He decreed that, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦all public notices and memorials had political significance and that the use of demon-like expression such as the dragon must not be used (Giddens and Giddens 78). Many scholars have argued that the negative connotations on the Chinese dragon during the reign of Hong RenÃ¢â¬â¢gan were a clear indication of the influence that the advent of Christianity had on the Chinese culture. In fact, it-the dragon is not used anywhere in Liang FaÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Good Words Admonish Age (Yang 101). In fact Hong argued that his attitude and vies of the dragon was largely influenced by Christianity. This condemnation however was not a universal one, but was more pragmatic and selective. Accordingly, he argued that the TaipingÃ¢â¬â¢s used precious dragon to adorn their utensils their imperial seal and vestments; this was apparently acceptable when compared to visions of heavenly golden dragons. In so doing, Hong certainly retained the imperial dragon that could his imperial authority; he discarded to dragon deity, which served as a source of devotion for the Chinese. The TaipingÃ¢â¬â¢s thus went ahead and propagated Hong Ã¢â¬â¢s vie of dragons being devils; this resulted in subsequent transfer of individual religious affiliations between the Taipings and Christians, which offered the opportunity of diffusion of the beliefs. It is clearly, however, that HongÃ¢â¬â¢
Friday, August 23, 2019
Service Learning Reflection Paper - Essay Example It will also discuss the particular aspects in which I have gained experience from and compare them to how I see myself as someone who is constantly developing as an individual. My state of mind before taking part in this experience was fairly simple and didn't appear too complex at all. I assumed that I would perhaps gain some organizational experience and that was about it. However, I took a lot more away than when I first imagined. Perhaps the most positive aspect that I gained from the experience would be the leadership skills in which I have developed. By assisting in such relatively simple tasks, I was able to use my communication skills with other people, including the children (who most in the entertainment industry will assert are the worst kind of people to work with). However, it all proved to be a fairly enjoyable experience without any problems at all. With the assistance of the school teachers, we were able to work together as a team to selectively organise and seat the children into their respective positions without any aggravation at all. I believe that, during instances such as these, a leader must closely observe the kind of person they are, and only see what they can give to others. In general, that's basically what I consider a leader to be, someone who is assisting someone else in reaching a certain goal whilst undertaking the team work approach at the same time. Most importantly, this is where I was able to determine what kind of character I am, and in the process, strengthening my weaknesses and asserting myself as a leadership tool to others at the same time. Also, the fact that this was un-paid servant work furthermore signifies the most important aspect of learning that I was reaching out to other people by putting them first. Changes Through being a servant leader, I have been able to adapt to new environments a lot quicker and beneficently while at the same time feeling comfortable in what I am doing. As an individual, I see myself as someone who likes to take on new and unknown challenges with a simple goal in mind: to become a better person, a better leader and develop a stronger mind. It was through this term that I was able to gain and develop the necessary tools in which I need to mould myself into this type of person. Although I don't see myself as a perfect individual at all, I do believe that this experience has helped shape and influence the way I think about the world in which I live in. Additionally, with the development of these tools, I am now able to use them in standard situations in my daily life should I ever encounter them. In order to accomplish my future goals, I feel that the servant work I did primarily assisted in my aim to project myself as not only a leader, but as someone who can be looked up to and relied upon in complicated situations. This is particularly where I consider my virtues and apply them to this sort of work. As human beings with our own minds, we constantly change, some people change for the good, and some for the bad. This is where I hope that by excelling in leadership and various
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Specialty Hospitals Essay Specialty Hospitals: A Problem or a Symptom? Specialty hospitals are not a new thing. However, as the number of specialty hospitals increases there is a question about their financial influence on the community hospitals. This paper discusses the results of two congressionally mandated reports on specialty hospitals. Main Concerns about Specialty Hospitals: 1. Clinical decisions made by physician-owners might be distorted by financial incentives 2. Specialty hospitals treat less complex, more profitable cases 3. Specialty hospitals do not treat uninsured or underinsured patients 4. Patient selection by specialty hospitals hurts community hospitals Congressionally Mandated Reports: The MedPAC report: Some of the positive findings according to MedPAC analysis on specialty hospitals are: better control over hospital operations, more organized schedule time in the operating room, operationÃ¢â¬â¢s room effectiveness, and more successful cooperation with the staff. In addition, MedPAC could not prove that the difference in financial performance affects efficiency at specialty hospitals. One of the main concerns that MedPAC had found was that if the number of the specialty hospitals increases significantly community hospitals could lose a lot of their patients. The other problem that MedPAC reported was that specialty hospitals are more likely to treat more- profitable patients. In order to improve payment accuracy, MedPAC recommended to refine of DRGÃ¢â¬â¢s and to revise the way the DRG relative weights are calculated. MedPAC also recommended to extend the moratorium until 1 January 2007 and to give HHS right to permit gain-sharing arrangements between physicians and hospitals in order to protect the quality of care and decrease the financial misunderstanding. The HHS report: Results of the report showed that community hospitals had more complicated cardiac patients than in cardiac specialty hospitals. However, cardiac hospitals had as good or even better care than care at their competitor hospitals, patient satisfaction was very high, rooms were larger and more quit, food was better, and specialty hospitals had sleeping rooms for the family members. The total proportion of net income devoted to uncompensated care and taxes combines exceeded the community hospitalsÃ¢â¬â¢ net revenue for uncompensated care. HHS recommendations were the same as MedPAC recommendations. Conclusion: The disagreement over specialty hospitals even more points out that the payment system and the health care financing system need significant improvement. One of the things that could be done is to reconsider the position and potential status of facilities that apply to be treated. Also, the various payment systems could provide consistent payments for similar services across settings which would reduce the role of financial incentives. All these proposals have been discussed earlier, however, they all have been hard to build up and apply. Questions to class discussion: 1.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Family And Gender Roles Changing Attitudes Sociology Essay From this point of view, female employment can be seen as a necessary means of family income and support. But the question remains whether and in which way family life and children will be affected by employed womens temporary absence from the household. Gender has been an important principle of stratification throughout Japanese history, but the cultural elaboration of gender differences has varied over time and among different social classes. After World War II, the fixed image of the Japanese woman has been that of the young office lady, who becomes a housewife and a stay-at-home mother after marriage. But a new generation of educated women is emerging, who are seeking a career as a working woman with a family at home. They continue to have nearly total responsibility for home and children and often justify their employment as an extension of their responsibilities for the care of their families (Molony, 2000). But how are the views on that commitment compared to women in a much more liberal country, such as the Netherlands? The subject of gender equity and working women in the Netherlands is often viewed by known two-tier societies (such as Japan, Austria, Italy and Venezuela) as progressive, maybe even too liberated for the tastes of some governments. Japan generally constitutes a case of low gender equity and low female labour market participation while the Netherlands has moderate to high gender equity and high part-time female labour market participation. This bachelors thesis will therefore attempt to identify whether a link exists between asymmetrical gender division of household labour and low gender equity. Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures must often be available to compensate for womens historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from otherwise operating on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality. Japan and the Netherlands will be very interesting countries to compare, because inequality between men and women in the Netherlands is relatively small compared to the other countries. As you can see, the Netherlands has a relatively high score on the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM):Arbeidsdeelname vrouwen in de EU, 2009 It comes fourth behind Sweden, Finland and Denmark. Despite anti-discrimination laws and a steadily growing number of employed women, Japan is falling behind the rest of the world on gender equality. Widespread discrimination persists, and has only grown more subtle over the past years. According to the United Nations Development Programme, Japan has consistently ranked as the most unequal of the worlds richest countries. Our means for above endeavor will be the Multidimensional Unfolding technique; can this technique be applied successfully to the large dataset of the ISSP 2002 survey programme: Family and Changing Gender Roles III? This large annual cross-national survey includes questions about attitudes towards gender role distribution, the attitudes towards employment of mothers and married women and management of marriage or partnership. I will also try to give a practical explanation of unfolding and the procedures that are used for this. The first phase of the project will involve an analysis of the ISSP data with SPSS PREFSCAL. With this programme we will try to find a common quantitative scale that allows us to visually examine the relationships between our two sets of objects/countries; Japan and the Netherlands. The main issue of this study is to show how attitudes towards marriage, motherhood, and the morality of family behavior differ across nations, both in the Netherlands and in Japan. What is the difference in attitudes about the changing gender roles in two different cultures? Theory 2.1 Attitudes towards gender equity in Japan and the Netherlands In the beginning, woman was the sun. An authentic person. Today, she is the moon. Living through others. Reflecting the brilliance of others (Sievers, 1983). It was Toshiko Kishida (1863-1901) who said: If it is true that men are better than women because they are stronger, then why arent our sumo wrestlers in the government? (Kishida, 2007) This famous Japanese woman used clever phrases such as this to attack the view that men by nature were superior to women. She became a talented and exciting public speaker and the first woman to travel all over Japan, addressing huge crowds. She was imprisoned for her beliefs, but continued to speak out. She said that a civilized country such as Japan should be ashamed to respect men and yet despise women. When after this the Meiji-Taisho era (1868-1926) began, Japanese leaders were open to new ideas; male nationalists argued that improving the status of women was essential if other technologically advanced nationals (such as the Netherlands) were to accept them. This opened the door for a small group of women who called for new rights and freedoms. The phrase good wife, wise mother was coined, meaning that in order to be good citizens, women had to become educated and take part in public affairs (Sievers, 1983). But even after this, the dominant male-breadwinner family model, accompanied by tax and state benefits for families that favor one-earner couples, and a lack of available or affordable institutionalized childcare make it difficult for Japanese women to combine work and parenthood. When they do attempt this, they take on not only the role of paid worker, but also remain the largest contributor to housework and child-caring tasks (Kreyenfeld Hank, 2000). I dont interfere with my husbands business, not with my mouth, hands or legs. (Jordan, 2002). This statement, made by Kumiko Hashimoto, the wife of former Japanese Prime Minister Ryutario Hashimoto, underlines the traditional role of women in Japan. After this we can conclude that traditional gender roles in Japan are characterized by a strong sense of patriarchy in their society, which accounts for the bifurcation of the productive and reproductive spheres, with a distinct separation of gender roles. In the family, this refers to the idea of the man as the primary breadwinner of the family, and the woman as the primary caregiver in the family (Iwao, 1994). But all this is completely different in the Netherlands. After being oppressed by men in the 19th century women started the first feminist wave here around the year 1870. Wilhelmina Drucker and Aletta Jacobs were the two main women of this wave and both meant a lot for the position of women nowadays. At the end of the first feminist wave women obtained the right to vote and were able to attend college and universities, and had the right to work outdoors. In the 1950s and early 1960s it seemed that the emancipation of women in the Netherlands was completed. Formally, women had the same rights and possibilities to work outdoors as men. Though in practice, married women did not work outdoors and the public opinion was that both men and women had both different competences; women were the ones to take care of the children and men had paid jobs outdoors. In 1980 the law for equal treatment for men and women was finally ratified. Nowadays, the amount of part time jobs has increased massively over the last twelve years. Though, women work much more in part time jobs as men. The government wants to stimulate more women to work more hours a week. Furthermore, men should have the chance to work in part time and take care of children for example as well (Van de Loo, 2005). Most women in the Netherlands today continue to work after the birth of their children, and compared with Japan the employment rate of mothers in the Netherlands is high. The majority of women in the Netherlands do however reduce their working hours after the birth of their first child. This fits in with views in the Netherlands on looking after children; the fact that a mother is working is no longer an issue, but a mother having a full-time job still goes too far for most Dutch people. The majority feel that it is best for children to be looked after exclusively by their own parents, and they are very reserved about formal childcare. In addition, a third of women and more than half of men believe that women are better suited than men to looking after small children. Working part-time offers mothers an opportunity both to participate in the labour market and to look after their children largely or entirely themselves (Versantvoort, 2008). Multi-dimensional Unfolding Technique Unfolding is a data analysis technique that was invented in 1950 by Clyde Hamilton Coombs and his students in one dimension and is later extended to multiple dimensions (Busing, 2010). The unfolding model is a geometric model for preference and choice. It locates individuals and alternatives as points in a joint space, and it predicts that an individual will pick the alternative in the choice set closest to its ideal point. It is perhaps the dominant model in both scaling of preferential choice and attitude scaling. By scaling we refer to the process following data collection, by which numbers are assigned to entities such as items or individuals. Coombs proposed a joint scale for preference data: his J scale positions both judges and items on a single continuum such that an item is located closer to the judge the more it is preferred. UnfoldingÃ is the name he coined for the operation of deriving the joint scale from the individual preference rankings (Coombs, 1950). Coombs ideas were later extended by Bennett and Hays (1960) to the multidimensional case: multidimensional unfoldingÃ becomes then the operation of representing both individuals and preference items as points in a low-dimensional space such that the distance orders reÃ ¬Ã¢â¬Å¡ect the rankings. This multidimensional unfolding model, which relies on distances and that is also known as ideal point model, is a very attractive one: it gives a geometric representation of nonmetric data in a sparse way, and with a distance model that is easy to grasp. This statistical method is explorative in the sense that it can identify latent dimensions in a given dataset. The model will find coordinates in a low-dimensional joint space, in the particular case at hand both for respondents and statements about gender equity and inequity. The resulting configurations are very easy to interpret and give a quick first insight into the overall structure of the data and its particularities (Van Deun, Marchal, Heiser, Engelen, Van Mechelen, 2007). The multidimensional unfolding technique computes solutions to the equations of unfolding model. It can be defined as multidimensional scaling of off-diagonal matrices. This means the data are dissimilarities between n row objects and m column objects, collected in an n ÃÆ'- m matrix 1. An important example is preference data, where _i j indicates, for instance, how much individual i dislikes object j . In unfolding we have many of the same distinctions as in general multidimensional scaling: there is uni-dimensional and multidimensional unfolding, metric and nonmetric unfolding, and there are many possible choices of loss functions that can be minimized (De Leeuw, 2011). Unfolding also finds an optimal solution by minimizing what is called a stress function. (To be continued) 2.3 Data This research is a secondary analysis based on the study monitoring survey conducted by ZUMA for the ISSP on the 2002 Family and Changing Gender Roles module. Thirty-four member countries archived the 2002 Family and Changing Gender Roles module; all of them have completed the monitoring questionnaire. The ISSP 2002 module contains 362 variables and 60000 cases. The cases are a multi-stage stratified sample of the (adult) population of thirty-four countries worldwide. The data was essentially collected through face to face interviews, self-completion (with interviewer involvement) or, in some cases, telephone interviews. But these telephone interviews were later on not permitted in the ISSP, so they are not included in the data. Nine countries had advance letters, including Japan; while the Netherlands had a telephone pre-contact. The Netherlands also made use of an incentive (a gift token of 15 euros), while Japan did not use any incentive. With the exception of Japan, countries using interviewer-administered modes back-checked interviews (proportions ranging between 3%-95%). Japan and the Netherlands both had an age cut-off point at 16 years. The Study Monitoring Questionnaire (SMQ) has been modified from year to year. Questions on fieldwork, translation, and sampling have, for example changed and questions on documentation been added. Some countries used old versions of the SMQ, which they had kept. This means that some information for these countries is missing in the report. While the statements in the ISSP questionnaire are about different aspects of family and work life of women, they generally imply that an unequal burden of homemaking activities should lie with the female and/or that a females activities in the labour market are of secondary importance to her role as a homemaker and her husbands role in the labour market. Method The multidimensional unfolding technique usually runs with small datasets with a maximum of 100 subjects. Not much research is done yet on how well PREFSCAL handles larger datasets like the ISSP set with 2341 subjects (only Japan and the Netherlands) Im about to use, so this will be an interesting and instructive endeavor. To investigate whether or not unfolding can be used to make sense of the relations between the different gender-related items (i.e., statements) a first analysis will be done on a restricted sample from the dataset with respondents from the Netherlands and Japan only. Choosing only two countries turned out to be a wise decision, because PREFSCAL cant run smoothly with all thirty-four countries in one data-set, it is simply too much data for SPSS to handle; you will get an error about having insufficient memory to complete the procedure. After that the execution of the command will come to a halt. The next step was making a choice selection from the many variables; I chose seven variables which can best represent the construct of gender equality, these variables are given in table 1. The variables are comparable because they all measure subjects attitudes towards gender equality. V4 A mens job is work, a womans job is the household. V6 When a woman works, the family life suffers. V7 What women really want is a home and kids. V8 Work is the best thing for a womans independence. V9 A working woman should get paid maternity leave V11 Working in the household satisfies just as much as a paid job. V27 If a mom works she can still have a warm relationship with her children. The above questions were presented to each of the subjects, who were asked to indicate their degree of agreement on a 9-point rating scale. This scale goes from Strongly agree to Strongly disagree with an added Cant choose and No answer refused. I chose a (wide) variety of questions from my data; some are very positive about women in the workplace and household and some are very negative about women in the workplace and household. Entries in the following models indicate average similarities and dissimilarities between the Japanese and Dutch people across seven different points of view. The term similarity is used to indicate the degree of agreement between two objects, while dissimilarity indicates the degree of disagreement. I filtered the thirty-four countries with Select-Cases and using the option If condition is satisfied. My variable for country is called v3, with Japan having code 24 and the Netherlands having code 11; so I put in v3=24 OR v3=11. When I wanted to write the cases to a whole new data-set I chose the option copy selected cases to a new data-set in the first tab of Select Cases. Having done this, I had a whole new data-set with only the data from Japan and the Netherlands to work with. When I tried to make some models with PREFSCAL I got a missing data error: Row with only missing data found. This is not allowed. This means that at least one person in my data-set hasnt given a valid answer to the variables/questions Im using for this project. That is why I chose to use only persons that have given a valid answer to at least 50 percent of the questions in my analysis. I did this by going to Compute Variable and creating a filter-variable with Include if case satisfies condition: NVALID (v4, v6, v7, v8, v9, v11, v27)>=4. I simply took the amount of variables I had (7), divided them by two and rounded off upwards to four. Four being the minimal amount of valid answers I wanted in my analysis. After this I filtered my Japan-Netherlands data-set on this new variable (Valid Answers) via Select Cases. SPSS will then filter all the cases that have too little valid answers. When I had finally solved all the problems with my data-set I got the following error: Invariant part of the data found, check, depending on conditionality chosen, your data for constant parts. To solve this problem I made the decision to analyze my data with the option matrix-conditional and transforming the input data row conditionally, whereby tied observations were untied for each row separately. This means that the model was allowed to transform like-wise item scores into different values, as long as the overall order of the item scores was not altered. To better distinguish the difference between males and females on other variables, such as education and religion, I used Select Cases again to create two different data-sets, one with 1106 males and one with 1235 females after correcting for invalid answers again. The first two-dimensional unfolding model of Japan and the Netherlands was created. Its Normalized Stress level was a fair 0,1027924, which is an excellent stress-level for an unfolding model. This stress is intended to be a measure of how well the configuration fits the data. Stress is defined as a Standardized Residual Sum of Squares which should always be positive, and the smaller the better. Kruskal himself suggested the following benchmarks for measuring stress: .20 = poor, .10 = fair, .05 = good, .025 = excellent, and .00 = perfect. These benchmarks are based on experience with experimental and synthetic data (Kruskal, 1964). By adding more variables into my model I wanted to get a better grasp of the cultural differences between Japan and the Netherlands on the subject of gender equity, family life and marriage. I did this by adding these five questions to the seven I already had: V10 Both men and women should attribute to the household income. V12 Men should do a larger share of child care. V13 Men should do a larger share of household work. V19 A bad marriage is better than no marriage at all. V26 People without kids lead empty lives. These questions are aimed more at a mens responsibility in the household and add some more cultural information about attitude about marriage and having children. Before using the Prefscal method in SPSS, first the Correlation Matrix was analyzed. As can be seen in the above matrix table there are quite a few significant correlations between the twelve variables. The highest correlations can be found between questions about working mothers and questions about mens household duties, and also between questions about having children and questions about family life. So there are strong correlations between the variables. This is as expected, because the variables represent unique characteristics of two cultures about gender equity. Since Prefscal itself doesnt give a three-dimensional graphical representation in the SPSS output automatically, I wanted to see if I could find three different dimensions in my data, instead of two (see Figure under construction). Results I will hereby present the results of an attempt to classify 2341 Japanese and Dutch citizens using the unfolding model. The result of the SPSS PREFSCAL unfolding model for the sample from the Dutch and Japanese citizenship values data from the 2002 ISSP Citizenship Programme is a two-dimensional joint plot based on a classical initial scaling configuration, which shows points for 1241 Dutch respondents, 1100 Japanese respondents and twelve statements about gender-equity and inequity. This solution resulted in a great two-dimensional graphical representation which looked very interpretable in terms of the possibilities of interpreting the differences between the two countries in the data set. As you can see, the gender equity positive variables are all on the bottom of the Column Objects model. The negative variables are all at the top, and the one neutral variable is in the middle. The Joint Plot shows the separately derived two-dimensional spaces for the red (Japanese respondents) and blue (Dutch respondents) dots. The twelve statements are represented by black dots. The axes represent the primary and secondary dimensions, shown in normalized units. The interpretation of this unfolding solution is done intuitively. It will be investigated whether the dimensions can be given meaning. A good modeling solution will locate a subjects opinion about gender equity according to the most dominant cross-reference proximities in their answers. By first inspection, it can be readily seen that Prefscal indeed located points corresponding to similar objects close together, while those corresponding to dissimilar objects far apart. This is consistent with our intuition that the countries within the groups havent got much in common. To understand these different contexts, we can again turn to nation-specific contextual explanations. (Insert interpretation of the above model) The highest level of education for the respondent is represented by five comparative categories, not included No answer, dont know. Lowest formal qualification and above lowest qualification represents those who have not completed primary school to those who have completed this level or the first stage of basic education. Higher secondary completed refers to those who have completed higher secondary school or technical training. The above higher level of secondary education group includes those who completed higher secondary school theoretical training up to the last and highest level of tertiary education, University degree completed (i.e., PhD). Van Wel Knijn (2006) maintain that the part-time labour market participation of Dutch mothers is primarily caused by cultural factors and not economic or institutional constraints. They contend that a culture of care dominates, as does the one-and-a-half earner model where the man works full-time and the woman part-time. This model is particularly dominant among people with a lower education. For those with higher education, the tendency is for both partners to attempt to work part-time, although this is only achieved within a very limited group. Based on these institutional and cultural differences, we anticipate that women in Japan will face higher institutional and family constraints than in the Netherlands. As outlined in the main hypothesis, we expect that these constraints will be particularly poignant for Japanese working women who engage in both substantial paid labour combined with a heavy load of household duties. (Insert education model with only females). Conclusion Discussion
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Ideological differences of Cold War Question 1 What was the Cold War about? Present a thorough analysis that makes reference to the differences between countries in the East and West up to the demise of the Soviet Union. The Cold War was based upon the ideological differences of the countries of the East and those of the West. The East or Eastern Bloc referred to the countries of Eastern Europe; the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and its satellites in the Caribbean, Latin America and Asia; and the West referred to the United States of America (USA), Britain and France in particular who were rebuilding western Europe post world war II. Geographically speaking the references to east and west were more so based upon the notion that the English speaking part of the world had adopted democracy, in particular liberal democracy as the main or ideal political ideology and capitalism as the method of economic development. Almost like references to the north/ south divide where there is no strict geographical adherence. In this essay I propose to show how the Cold War of capitalism versus communism played out as well as to explain the fall of communism and the subsequent demise of the Soviet Union . Liberal democracy and capitalism seem to go hand in hand at least that is the ideal put forward by the US and Britain who seem to be basking in the consumerism that followed the Industrial Revolution. Liberalism as an ideology developed quickly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Post World War I (WWI) liberal democracy was identified by the President Woodrow Wilson as the ideology that would maintain peace and stability as long as nation states observed each others sovereignty. At the core of liberalism were the freedoms and rights of the individual, respect for private property, representative government, collective will and the minimal role of the state. The rights of the individual in particular were most important. In framing its constitution the United States had taken this into consideration with its Bill of Rights which entitles citizens to life, liberty, justice, toleration and the right to economic prosperity. This paved the way for liberal economics, which encourag ed free trade and the use of the market to determine supply and demand; Adam Smiths invisible hand. This economic policy or capitalism was based on five principles: private ownership, market economy, competition, profit and stable prices. These principles in keeping with the political regime were individualistic in nature. The idea was the private interests (entrepreneurship) would produce goods for mass consumption and the entry or exit of other players would fuel the economy. It is assumed that the consumer is rational, that is, he or she will make choices depending on taste and cost of the product. Production is consumer driven and based on profits. Communism as a political ideology and economic policy has its groundings in the theoretical precepts of Karl Marx (1818-1883). Marx had an economic interpretation of history and war in particular. He saw the basis of any conflict as class related rather than something such as race. The conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, or what he viewed as the exploitation of the masses by the elites was the basis for the production and exchange of goods and services. This was the human interaction which influenced the social processes and institutions. Marx believed that those who owned the factors of production: land, labour and capital controlled the social and cultural norms and as such dominated the society. Therefore the superstructure, laws and government were controlled by these people. Basically those who controlled the economic sphere controlled the political sphere as well. It is to this end that Marx posits that imperialism driven by capitalism has shaped modern histo ry. This knowledge shaped Marxs view that there was a need for social change, a revolution. He believed in the universal nature of class conflict and suggested that sheer universal identification of the working class everywhere would cause mass revolution and the overturn of elite government, bringing social and economic reforms. The basic tenant of communism was the communal ownership of the means of production; the polar opposite of a liberal democratic society. Andrew Heywood (Politics, 1997:33) defines communism simply as a Ã¢â¬Å"communal organisation of socail existence on the basis of collective ownership of propertya classless society in which wealth was owned in common, production was geared to human need and the state had withered awayÃ¢â¬ . In its truest sense the Cold War was not an actual outright war which used military but more of a rivalry expressed through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, a nuclear arms race, espionage, proxy wars, propaganda, and technological competition. This war was fought mostly in satellite areas. It was about military postering and the expansion of ideology on either side. There is much contestation on when the war started, some believe it was right before the end of WWI in 1918 when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, pushed for socialist revolution and others believe it started after WWII in 1945. Lenin and his Bolshevik party took power in October 1917 and he was the first head of the Soviet Union. His interpretation of Marxs communism is rivalled by no other. His aim was the modernise Soviet Russia, bringing it from a backward agrarian state into an industrialised nation. He knew building a new state from the bottom up was going to be difficult so he or chestrated a means of keeping the working class disciplined and committed to the cause. His attempt at starting with the working class in the countryside was miscalculated. The working class wanted to be the middle class and the middle class wanted to be the upper class, there was no immediate consolidation of the working class and the middle class to overthrow the upper class. So Lenin would have to take measures into his own hands; the revolution had to come from the top then. The Bolshevik party had to seize power and maintain it in order to keep the proletariat in check and committed, it became less of soviet democracy and more like a dictatorship. The pressure that Marx said would force a revolution and development of the state was not coming from the masses but from the political elites. The vanguard party was in the process of fashioning a regime which eventually let to a civil war. The internal fighting did not help the fact that the Soviet Union had now found it self in a d iplomatic wilderness because it had isolated itself from its capitalist neighbours. The civil war started to create chinks in the soviet armour, the intense spending on the war meant less money being spent on the social welfare of the masses. According to Martin McCauleys The Soviet Union 1917-1991 (1993:31), Ã¢â¬Å"(M)ore than anything else it was the lack of Bolshevik success in the economic sphere, under the conditions of civil war, which shaped and fashioned the Soviet regime. Shortages, cold, hunger and disease racked the communist body politicÃ¢â¬ The Bolshevik party had forgotten about their people, the very people that they were supposed to be serving. The party had lost its way and the Russian economy was dwindling because of it. Money had become useless as the state was encouraging production with out pay, there was little incentive. Lenins dream of a mixed economy had died and had ushered in the new socialist economy but soon he became disillusioned again with what see med to be the non-existence of a proletariat essentially there was no one to lead, the country was far from where he has thought it would be, it was in ruin. With the succession of Leon Trotsky the economy did not fare any better. Trotsky did not under stand the political principles as his rival for leadership Stalin did. Slowly and surely Stalin was undermining Trotskys, at first with minor disagreements and then replacing Trotsky supporters with his own friends especially in the key areas around the country. Even through all of this, Lenin was observing and had found that Joseph Stalin was a brilliantly skilful man but he had become too ambitious and opportunistic. Lenin saw this as huge fault and that is why he continued to support Trotsky as his successor because Trotsky was willing to see Lenins dream through to the end. Stalin however, eventually stepped into the shoes of Lenin by sabotaging Trotskys attempts to let the words and ideas of Lenin live in his memory. Lenin was the only Soviet leader who was even remotely close to what was Marxism and Marxs ideal. Stalin stated that he viewed international politics as a bipolar world i n which the Soviet Union would attract countries gravitating to socialism and capitalist countries would attract states gravitating toward capitalism, while the world was in a period of temporary stabilization of capitalism preceding its eventual collapse. Socialism and capitalism came together to fight World War II against Nazi Germany, but the Soviet Union was growing suspicious of the wests ambitions regarding the resettlement of the war torn European continent. The western Allies desired a security system in which democratic governments were established as widely as possible, permitting countries to peacefully resolve differences through international organizations, such as the League of Nations (United Nations). In order to combat this situation the Soviet Union sought to insert itself into the domestic politics of nations on its borders and so Poland (incorporated into two different SSRs), Latvia (Latvian SSR), Estonia (Estonian SSR), Lithuania (Lithuanian SSR), part of easter n Finland (Karelo-Finnish SSR) and eastern Romania (Moldavian SSR). After annexing several occupied countries as Soviet Socialist Republics at the end of World War II, other occupied states were added to the Eastern Bloc by converting them into puppet Soviet Satellite states, such as East Germany, the Peoples Republic of Poland, the Peoples Republic of Hungary, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Peoples Republic of Romania and the Peoples Republic of Albania. The Soviet-style regimes that arose in the Bloc not only reproduced Soviet command economies, but also adopted the brutal methods employed by Joseph Stalin and Soviet secret police to suppress real and potential opposition. Stalin began completely shut out the rest of the world. The only thing the people of the Soviet Union knew was the positive propaganda espoused by Stalin. Films, books, art of any kind were forbidden and creativity was stifled. In order to preserve what was left of the communist dream Stalin shut off the world all technology even household appliances were forbidden. Foreign products were contraband and the black market thrived. There was an ideological battle going on within the Soviet Union. Many were executed and exiled. Beginning in 1934, Stalin began murderous purges of the Party through a series of show trials. By January 1947 the Soviet Union had become more and more financially strained. Further more the division of Germany into east and west had created a political nightmare for those living on either side. In Asia, the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war, and went on to occupy the large part of Korean territory. In early 1947, Britain, France and the United States unsuccessfully attempted to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for a plan envisioning an economically self-sufficient Germany, including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants, goods and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets. In June 1947, in accordance with the Truman Doctrine, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan, a pledge of economic assistance for all European countries willing to participate, including the Soviet Union. The Marshall Plan was to rebuild and democratise Europe and this was contingent on Germanys recovery. The United States and Britain merged their western German occupation zones into Bizonia (later trizonia with the addition of Frances zone). As part of the economic rebuilding of Germany, in early 19 48, representatives of a number of Western European governments and the United States announced an agreement for a merger of western German areas into a federal governmental system. In addition, in accordance with the Marshall Plan, they began to re-industrialize and rebuild the German economy, including the introduction of a new Deutsche Mark currency to replace the old Reichsmark currency that the Soviets had debased. After the death of Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev presented himself as a down-to-earth activist prepared to take up any challenge. Khrushchev arranged for the Kremlin grounds to be opened to the public, an act with great public resonance. Khrushchev sought reforms to agriculture; in fact he started to de-Stalinise the state. To the shock and dismay of his party members he was openly criticising Stalin whom he had seemed so faithful to. He openly discussed Stalins brutish behaviour and all his crimes. Essentially assassinating what little was left behind of Stalin. Nationalist movements in some countries and regions, notably Guatemala, Iran, the Philippines, and Indochina were often allied with communist groupsÃ¢â¬âor at least were perceived in the West to be allied with communists. In this context, the US and the Soviet Union increasingly competed for influence by proxy in the Third World as decolonization gained momentum in the 1950s and early 1960s; additionally, the Soviets saw continuing losses by imperial powers as presaging the eventual victory of their ideology. The US government utilized the CIA in order to remove a string of unfriendly Third World governments and to support allied ones. The US used the CIA to overthrow governments suspected by Washington of turning pro-Soviet Iran in 1953 and Guatemala in 1954. Between 1954 and 1961, the US sent economic aid and military advisers to stem the collapse of South Vietnams pro-Western regime. Many emerging nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America rejected the pressure to choose sides in the East-West competition. In 1955, at the Bandung Conference in Indonesia, dozens of Third World governments resolved to stay out of the Cold War. The consensus reached at Bandung culminated with the creation of the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. Meanwhile, Khrushchev broadened Moscows policy to establish ties with India and other key neutral states. Independence movements in the Third World transformed the post-war order into a more pluralistic world of decolonized African and Middle Eastern nations and of rising nationalism in Asia and Latin America. The Soviet Union formed an alliance with Fidel Castro-led Cuba after the Cuban Revolution in 1959. In 1962, President John F. Kennedy responded to the installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba with a naval blockade. The Cuban Missile Crisis brought the world closer to nuclear war than ever before. It further demonstrated the concept of mutually assured destruction, that neither nuclear power was prepared to use nuclear weapons fearing total destruction via nuclear retaliation. The aftermath of the crisis led to the first efforts in the nuclear arms race at nuclear disarmament and improving relations, although the Cold Wars first arms control agreement, the Antarctic Treaty, had come into force in 1961. In 1964, Khrushchevs Kremlin colleagues managed to oust him, but allowed him a peaceful retirement. Accused of rudeness and incompetence, he was also credited with ruining Soviet agriculture and bringing the world to the brink of nuclear war. Khrushchev had become an international embarrassment when he authorised construction of the Berlin Wall, a public humiliation for Marxism-Leninism. From the beginning of the post-war period, Western Europe and Japan rapidly recovered from the destruction of World War II and sustained strong economic growth through the 1950s and 60s, with per capita Gross Domestic Products approaching those of the United States, while Eastern Bloc economies stagnated. A succession of leaders followed and failed to correct or reform the failing USSRs bid for a social revolution. By the time the comparatively youthful Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary in 1985; the Soviet economy was stagnant and faced a sharp fall in foreign currency earnings as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the 1980s. These issues prompted Gorbachev to investigate measures to revive the ailing state. An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary and in June 1987 Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called perestroika, or restructuring. Perestroika relaxed the production quota system, allowed private ownership of businesses and paved the way for foreign investment. These measures were intended to redirect the countrys resources from costly Cold War military commitments to more profitable areas in the civilian sector. There were many contradictions within the party and the execution of the communist re ality. 1. The first contradiction is that collectivization and heavy-handed bureaucracy kept productivity and efficiency in agriculture and industry low. 2. The second contradiction is that the Soviet Union was trying to encourage communism by providing significant monies in aid to countries in its socialist sphere of influence, especially Cuba, and engaging in revolutionary activities e.g.: Angola, Nicaragua, Afghanistan, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦, but was experiencing severe economic difficulties. Overstretch. 3. Marx and Lenin postulated that people would unite base on class but underestimated thee power of nationalism. 4. The Vanguard Party was to be temporary but its top level bureaucrats Ã¢â¬Å"the nomenklaturaÃ¢â¬ became an entrenched class. It was to represent the people but the needs of ordinary people were ignored. 5. The command economy meant that while the USSR was occupied with the space race and arms race, it also had an additional burden not carried by the US, that is, a large welfare system to maintain, as well as satellites to look after. Despite initial scepticism in the West, the new Soviet leader proved to be committed to reversing the Soviet Unions deteriorating economic condition instead of continuing the arms race with the West. Partly as a way to fight off internal opposition from party cliques to his reforms, Gorbachev simultaneously introduced glasnost, or openness, which increased freedom of the press and the transparency of state institutions. Glasnost was intended to reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist Party and moderate the abuse of power in the Central Committee. Glasnost also enabled increased contact between Soviet citizens and the western world, particularly with the United States, contributing to the accelerating dÃ ©tente between the two nations. Gorbachev spent his first two years consolidating his power by purging the party of dissidents and continuing the policies of previous presidents. It is however, the reform era (1987-1989) in which perestroika took place. Gorbachev was not th e first USSR leader to make amendments; Yuri Andropov had called for increased discipline and decentralization. But these were initially minimalist and so was Gorbachev at first. However, by 1987 it became apparent to him that more widespread changes needed to be made. In his book Perestroika, he noted that his immediate priorities were: to put the economy in order tighten up discipline rise the level of organization and responsibility Catch up in areas where they were behind. And by 1987, Gorbachev had formulated a theory and plan known as perestroika, Russian for restructuring. Gorbachev saw quality control as a means to achieve this. He created a new bureaucracy and introduced evaluators and controllers in factories to reject faulty products (Kenez 249). He sought to implement greater incentives for workers to produce. Kenez notes that these made him unpopular with the working class, diminishing his support. He also cut back on aid and reduced USSR involvement in proxy wars (e.g: Afghanistan), Cuba. He also called for the need for acceleration of scientific and technological progress and modernisation of industry. He gave power to factory workers to determine their own product mix and wage scales (Kenez). These changes undermined the existing centrally planned and centrally controlled economy. Not only this, manager would bid up wages because they knew the state wouldnt allow the factories to go bankrupt and would bail them up and this further contributed to inflation. It should be noted that Gorbachev made it clear that he was conducting all the reforms in accordance with socialism. His initial domestic and foreign goal was to make the existing soviet system work better. He initially spoke of perfecting the economy, rather than reforming it and was sceptical about free market experiments. Perestroika can only come through democracy. Unless the interests of people and social groups were taken into account, it was impossible to accomplish any of these tasks. Glasnost, or Ã¢â¬Å"opennessÃ¢â¬ it should be noted was one of the first reforms he implemented even before this whole reform package which later became known as Ã¢â¬Å"PerestroikaÃ¢â¬ . Glasnost was initially a slight opening of expression to facilitate fuller discussion of economic issues (Ebenstein and Fogelman). Eventually it came to include a wide range of freedoms. But can democratic freedoms be implemented on a political structure held together by force ad expect the structure to maintain its integrity? So what exactly were these reforms and what were the consequences? Foreign radio broadcast beamed at the USSR were no longer jammed. This meant that citizens had access to alternative sources of information about this own country and weakened the position of the party whose power was based on its secrecy and control of info. Openness led to an outpouring of information to Soviet citizens and to the world concerning current Soviet political, economic and social problems, e.g: Chernobyl. The USSRs dirty laundry was being aired. It showed that the seemingly powerful USSR had problems. Formerly banned works of writers were allowed Glasnost was seen as a threat by party members because it threatened the bureaucratic structure and positions of privilege and affluence they once enjoyed. This weakened Gorbachevs support among party officials and hence his legitimacy. Ã¢â¬Å"By opening the door to public criticism of the regimes failures and inequities and perestroika, by decentralizing the economy, threaten the monopoly of party power.Ã¢â¬ Along with criticism of Stalin, etc.Ã¢â¬ ¦Gorbachev also found himself being openly criticized. This weakened his aura of power and this was decisive because what does this mean for a system predicated on a leader who rules with an iron fist? If the leader is weakened, so is the system. Anti-alcohol campaign was to Ã¢â¬Å"improve the health of the family and enhance its role in societyÃ¢â¬ and stopped serving alcohol at state functions, raised the price of vodka, limited distributions, among other things. The anti-alcohol campaign reduced alcohol consumption to an extent but was largely unpopular. People were hospitalized for drinking poison. Production of home brews increased. More importantly, vodka was one of the mainstays of the USSR economy and revenues dropped (Kenez). To sum it all up, perestroika by itself did not lead to the fall of the USSR, neither did Reagan. The collapse of the USSR was as a result of a combination of factors. Including growing contradictions within the USSR which Perestroika unwittingly helped to exacerbate. Gorbachev sought to bring about democratic practices on a system which had been founded upon and maintained through force. The revelation about the increasing political and socio-economic problems of a military overstretched and overburdened USSR helped to show up the chinks in the USSR armor. A relentless West and a more conciliatory USSR and Gorbachevs weakening position within his own country were the final nails in the coffin, which allowed a coup to occur and Yeltsin to declare independence for Russia and ultimately the fall of the USSR. Bibliography Ebenstein, A. et al (2000) Todays ISMs : Socialism, Capitalism, Fascism, Communism and Libertarianism. New Jersey: Prentice Hall McCauley, M. (1993) The Soviet Union 1917-1991. New York: Longman Pipes, R. (1994) Russia Under The Bolshevik Regime. New York: Vintage Books Kenez, P. (1999) A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End. New York: Cambridge University Press
Monday, August 19, 2019
Joan Cornell notes that the Internet democratizes the journalism which was in the hand of the few people (2003). The Internet makes the public access to information; at the same time, it creates the public to be journalists, opening blogs to put something new around on the Internet. Many news websites like The Guardian, the Washington Post, CNN and MSNBC allows some personification. The journalism nowadays is facing challenges not only from media and technology convergence, but also from audience they serve (Bowman and Willis 2003). For example, in MSNBCÃ¢â¬â¢s my MSN part, one can post news by yourself. While the audience are participating in the process of journalism with the aid of the Internet, it cannot be neglected by mainstream media. The personification does not just mean service customised, but also more perspectives are evolved in the news event, as noted by Watts Wacker (2002). Many media sites online have been founded with different aims mentioned, but their appearance demonstrates that the age of we media comes. OhmyNews International (OMNI), originating from Korea, defines itself as international journalists (OhmyNews online site). OMNI is a bit different from OhmyNews, because it concentrates more on reporting citizen journalism, which is more like guidance for people to get a better understanding about citizen journalism. They treat themselves as a bridge between media and Internet, where the ordinary can participate in conversations about news and trust the source of news. Even though creating a platform for the ordinary to be provide news, they need to obey the rule of journalism: that is to state clear the source of news and make sure the credibility. Besides the ordinary, curators are recruited to post news about ... ...ernative to mainstream journalism, but can never replace it. With the emergence of citizen journalism, traditional journalism can develop in the environment of more competitors and watchdogs. It is undeniable that citizen journalism is rising as another forceful power in the media industry. With democratization of traditional media, interactivity and watchdog as its characteristics, citizen journalism treats itself as new journalists. Citizen journalism makes news making process transparency, namely available to all. Right now, no one can predict the position citizen journalism in the media industry in the future, but in this changing environment as online journalism is becoming essential, citizen journalism can play an alternative role for the public to access news. What is more important is that it drives the public to actively select news and judge the news.
In response to why women remain investing significantly more time in unpaid housework than men (see Shelton and John, 1996; Coltrane, 2000 for a thorough review) and specialised in types of housework, empirical work done by researchers in economics background focuses on relative resource approach that builds on BeckerÃ¢â¬â¢s model of exchange. Nevertheless, the economic approach is far from satisfactory in explaining why married women who are financially independent perform more housework than their spouses. This brings the argument of gender ideology from the perspective of sociologists. The allocation of time among family members in the work that needs to be done, both in the market and in the household, has important implications for the householdÃ¢â¬â¢s consumption possibilities. Extending the benefits of labour specialisation that documented in the standard economics textbook, Becker (1985, 1991) suggests that multiperson household often find it beneficial to specialise to some extent in the activities that they undertake, based on comparative advantage. A salient example of such intrahousehold specialisation is married men specialised in market work and married women in household production. This historically division of labour within households is arranged on the basis that women accumulate less human capital. Given womenÃ¢â¬â¢s relatively lower opportunity cost in work outside the home as compared to men, household members would arrange spousesÃ¢â¬â¢ labour in a manner that women should allocate more time to household labour and less to market work in or der to yield a maximum utility for the family. However, women nowadays have acquired as much human capital as men be it in education, labour market experience, occupational attainme... ...economic dependence in housework performed between husband and wife, Greenstein (2000) also found a Ã¢â¬ËUÃ¢â¬â¢ shaped pattern for women, in which breadwinner wives undertake a greater share of housework than their husbands and a reversed Ã¢â¬ËUÃ¢â¬â¢ shaped for economically dependent husbands. However, Greenstein emphasise the process of deviance neutralisation instead of gender display in the division of housework. The author suggests that to neutralise a nonnormative provider role of women in the family, both husband and wife may restore to a traditional attitude to make up for gender deviance even if the relative resource approach suggests that the husband should share far more housework. With these theories and fact of the past as the backgorund, we turn our attention to the married couples in Kuching city to account for the asymmetrical distribution of household labour.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
What are the key threats to network and PC security today? Whether by malicious intent or accident, people are the main source of trouble, PC security problems can range from serious fraud, data theft or copyright breaches, through to work lost due to the introduction of viruses. A security breach can paralyse a network in a matter of minutes, as several high profile companies have discovered to their cost. The financial cost of putting the damage right can be very high. In addition, the impact on customer confidence can result in a severely damaged business reputation, which takes months or even years to reverse. The cost of clearing up the mess that the indiscriminate hacker leaves behind can run into millions - and for some companies it can have catastrophic financial consequences. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) released the findings of a survey of one thousand people responsible for IT Security in UK business during the recent InfoSec show. The results do not make for encouraging reading. The report was compiled for the DTI by Price water house Coopers and concluded that breaches of security are now costing UK businesses up to a staggering eighteen billion pounds every year. However, the trend is abundantly clear that Security is still regarded by many senior management teams as being insufficiently important for them to take appropriate action. Ensure the security of important information on your network. Financial reports, district personnel records, state and federal compliance forms all of your student records: A Network Analysis will determine the level of security of your network. A Network Analysis will also detect any unauthorized wireless devices illegally using your valuable bandwidth. A Network Analysis will determine the reliability of your network, It will create a map of your network, measure the bandwidth and determine the usage down to the specific computer desktop level. A Network Analysis can identify if there are valuable resources being wasted on your network. Based on the data gathered, a Network Analysis will enable you to make informed decisions regarding the allocation of resources, both financial and technical. Network Security Analysis addresses the issues of network security by providing an impartial view from an independent source. The analysis not only focuses on external issues but also addresses security within an organisation. A detailed report would highlight areas of concern and make recommendations as to where improvements could be made providing information on both hardware and software available to improve security.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
It is now possible to track humans wherever they are, thanks to the new technology of human chip implants. While this statement may sound interesting for the developers of the technology, the issue has attracted enormous debate about the ethical implications that surround the application of the technology. Human chip implants are sophisticated silicon microchip devices that are inserted to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s hand or face for identification purposes (Alam, 2010). Prior to human applications, the microchip devices were used to identify and track lost and stolen pets. The first human to accept the device be implanted into his body was Professor Kevin Warwick on August 24th, 1998 (Witt, 1999). Warwick, a director of cybernetics at the University of Reading, U. K became the first person to host the controversial microchip after a procedure which took 20 minutes. Dr (Witt, 1999). George Boulos led a team of doctors who inserted a glass capsule the size of a pearl into WarwickÃ¢â¬â¢s left arm just above his elbow. The glass capsule comprised of several microprocessors work to recognize the human and give commands and communicate with other electronic devices (Witt, 1999). The device that was implanted into WarwickÃ¢â¬â¢s arm was about (23 X 3) mm and it stayed in his body for only nine days in order to avoid medical complications (Witt, 1999). In addition, the device had been found to have lost some power to function and the removal of it was to ensue. Half of the device was an electric coil while the rest of it was purely an arrangement of silicon microchips that processed and stored the information (Witt, 1999). The device could use only 8 bits of the total 64 bits of information to interact and communicated efficiently with the intelligent building at the University of Reading. The device functions to pass radio signals between the door frames that have rigged up doorways (Witt, 1999). When a human with the device implanted into his body enters or gets through the doorways, the radio signal energizes the coil which then produces an electric current that chips use to communicate signals which the computer recognizes a person as Ã¢â¬Ëauthorized. Ã¢â¬â¢ After this intelligent authentication, the door opens and the person can enter the building. For the nine days after implantation, Warwick was able to make security doors that required only smartcards to swing open through an electronic node system that tracked WarwickÃ¢â¬â¢s movement through the entire building (Witt, 1999). The technology of human implants claims several applications such as the identifications of lost children as well as the confused individuals suffering from Alzheimer disease (Mcgee & Maquire, 1999). It is also proposed that the technology can have potential uses in the verifications of job applicants to determine whether they are criminals or illegal immigrants (Alam, 2010). The devices can carry criminal and medical history after encoding the device only with one number (Alam, 2010). This shows how the device can be used for tracking among many different uses. The device can be used to gain access to facilities in a secure manner reducing the cases of theft and unauthorized access to buildings, libraries, laboratories or other places where security is of high relevance (Alam, 2010). There are human rights that are infringed when the human microchips are implanted. For example, the human chip implant would impinge the constitutional rights in relation to the Fourth and Fifth Amendments (Alam, 2010). The device is also argued to be violating the Fourteen Amendments which provides for the rights of properties. All persons are protected from unreasonable seizures and searches according to the Fourth Amendment and one of these searches is the electronic surveillance which reveals the privacy of persons without their consent (Macgee & Maquire, 1999). Two implications about human rights abuse are made in the use of the human microchip implant; the attachment of the surveillance device on humans and the continued monitoring of the person once the device is in the body. The ability of the microchip implanted into the body to read-write and track predisposes individual personal information to be revealed (Alam, 2010). Even if the read-only devices are used, they can be easily be scanned by the police and unauthorized searches violates the Fourth Amendments. At the same time, the use of microchip implants would violate the Fifth Amendment since the application of the microchip could be one form of self-incrimination where the device presents some tracking capabilities which breach the Fifth Amendment which provides that no citizen shall be forced to witness against himself (Macgee & Maquire, 1999). Although the Amendments refer specifically to verbal self-incrimination, it has been argued that the Amendment applies to modern technologies which forcibly take the evidence from someone. Another violation of the implantation of microchips involves the internal property interest (Alam, 2010). The chip installation involves the breaking into the skin and implanting the device just the similar ways a pacemaker or an artificial eye. In the case of eye and pacemaker implants, the procedure is acceptable for medical reasons. Contrary, in the case of human chip implants where the aim of the gadget is for the accounting system as well as to act as a repository for government information. In general, the human chip implants pose a number of ethical and legal issues despite their potential applications in ensuring security and tracking lost and kidnapped individuals. It is important to enact appropriate legislations that will prevent any grievous intrusion into individual privacy as the technology gets a big vote among Americans.
Friday, August 16, 2019
1.0 IntroductionThe best indicant to find the local prevalence of kids with developmental disablement is from international surveies which have suggested that more than 10 % of all kids in the universe have developmental disablement ( Amar 2008 ) . Using this rate to local population under 15 old ages old with the figure of 9.2 million ( Department of Statistics Malaysia 2011 ) , approximative 920,000 kids with disablement would be found in Malaysia. Speech Language Pathologists ( SLPs ) play a important function in assisting the communicating development of individuals ( ASHA 2005 ) so that they are able to populate inclusively in society as stated in Persons with Disabilities Act 2008 ( Government of Malaysia 2008 ) . In the mid-1990, merely less than five Speech Language Diagnosticians who trained overseas were working locally in Malaysia which ensuing of amazing 1: 2.5 million Speech Language Pathologist to people ratio ( Ahmad 2010 ) . Finally, formal local Speech Language Pathologist preparation started in the late 1990 ( Sharma 2008 ) . Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia ( UKM ) is the innovator to offer Bachelor of Speech Science with Honors while Universiti Sains Malaysia ( USM ) began offering their Speech Pathology plan in 2004-2005. By 2011, more than 175 Speech Language Pathologists had graduated from the universities ( Aishah 2012- unpublished ) and are functioning to the community in different scenes. Lian & A ; Abdullah ( 2001 ) found that the profession of Speech Language Pathologist is still in its babyhood phase in Malaysia. The profession still needs old ages to turn and maturate ( Kosta 2005 ) . Indeed, many Malayan Speech Language Diagnosticians have indicated that they face great challenges to keep good profession patterns. The challenges are unfavourable working environment, deficit of Speech Language Pathologists, high caseload, small chances for go oning instruction and other factors ( Ahmad 2010 ; Sharma 2008 ) . Despite many challenges that affect Malayan Speech Language Pathologists patterns when pull offing instances, the balance between pragmatism and professionalism should be achieved in order to supply equity and quality of service proviso ( Ahmad 2010 ; Taylor-Goh 2005 ) . American Speech-Language-Hearing Association ( ASHA ) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) define Developmental Disability ( DD ) as terrible chronic conditions that occur in an single due to physical and or mental damage. Examples of developmental disablement are rational disablement such as Down Ã¢â¬Ës syndrome, neuromuscular upsets such as intellectual paralysis, sightlessness, hearing damage, larning disablements, epilepsy, and Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ASD ) ( Decoufle et al. 1994 ) . The oncoming of the conditions is before 22 old ages of age and will normally stay throughout the person Ã¢â¬Ës life-time. Peoples with developmental disablement have restrictions and jobs in his or her major functional life activities such as acquisition, working, walking, speech production and other countries ( ASHA 2005 & A ; CDC 2011 ) . Paul ( 2001 ) described kids in the Developing Language Stage ( DLS ) as group of kids who are still at the period of larning to unite words into sentences and they have expressive vocabularies larger than 50 words. Developing Language Phase occurs between 2 and 5 old ages of age for typical developing kids. Another manner to depict Developing Language Stage is that it refers to linguistic communication degree in Brown Ã¢â¬Ës Stage II-V. This indicated average lengths of vocalization ( MLU ) of more than two but less than five morphemes. The type of sentence produced by them are at the scope of additive simple sentences with outgrowth of grammatical morphemes, like Ã¢â¬Å" my cat Ã¢â¬Ës feeding Ã¢â¬ to intensify sentences, like Ã¢â¬Å" I drink milk and daddy drink java Ã¢â¬ ( Shipley & A ; McAfee 2009 ) . Developing Language Phase is the most explosive phase of linguistic communication development for kindergartner to develop from telegraphic vocalizations to basic sentence constructions ( Paul 2001 ) . For kids with developmental disablement, they needs appropriate intercession to travel through this phase ( Paul 2001 ; International Centre for Allied Health Evidence 2007 ; Law et al. 2010 ) . Hence, this is an of import passage gate for them to either remain at the same phase or to turn and come in the Language for Learning Stage. Malayan Speech Language Pathologists play great function to ease the acquisition of this group of kids. This is because mean caseload seen by Malayan Speech Language Pathologists particularly those who are working general infirmary consists of paediatric instances ( Aishah 2012- unpublished ; Sharma 2008 ) . From all the paediatric instance, Speech Language Disorder ( SLD ) is the most prevailing type of communicating damage seen by Speech Language Patholo gists in general infirmary ( Aishah 2012- unpublished ) . Therefore, this survey will function as a mention for the professionals in address and linguistic communication pathology about the pattern by Malayan Speech Language Pathologists in pull offing kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage. Opinions and recommendations by Malayan Speech Language Pathologists sing the bing issues will besides be collected to give more in-depth apprehension about the pattern by Malayan Speech Language Pathologists. Besides, this survey will supply feedbacks to the professional associations & A ; universities about the development of Malayan Speech Language Pathologists. Clinical pattern guidelines related to communicating upset in kids are good documented by professional association from western states because they provide relevant statements sing clinical direction that are based on the available current groundss including adept clinical sentiments ( Hargrove et al. 2008 & A ; Taylor-Goh 2005 ) . The guidelines besides assist Speech Language Pathologists in clinical determination devising procedure and to supply high criterions of minimal best patterns services ( Hargrove et al. 2008 ; SPA 2001 ; Taylor-Goh 2005 ) . Looking back to Malaysia, guideline constitution for the profession of speech linguistic communication pathology in the local context is still developing due to limited resources and work force. Based on the guidelines documented by American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and Royal College of Speech Language Therapists ( RCSLP ) , few common chief clinical procedures are highlighted and overly discussed to guarantee minimal best pa ttern to be practiced by the Speech Language Pathologists. The procedures are attack used in direction, appraisal, planning and intervention ( ASHA 2005 ; Gerber & A ; Prizant 2008 ; Taylor-Goh 2005 ) . Approach used in speech linguistic communication pathology direction could be delivered utilizing different attacks harmonizing to the state of affairs by either working independently or in close partnership with squad members ( SPA 2001 ) . However, coaction that involves household centered, squad working and culturally appropriate services is able to guarantee effectual direction to the kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage ( ASHA 2005 ; Diane 2011 ; SPA 2001 ; Taylor-Goh 2005 ) . Family-centered is a set of interrelated beliefs, rules and values that practiced by the facilitators including Speech Language Pathologists to back up and beef up the kid Ã¢â¬Ës household capacity to heighten and advance his development and acquisition ( Dunst 2002 ) . Through working in a multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary squad, Speech Language Diagnosticians do non provides services in isolation. Alternatively, this teaming establishes a joint intent and shared ends throughout the direction among the households, professionals and the kid ( ASHA 2005 ) . The cultural background of the households and the kid with Developmental Disability is really meaningful in service proviso particularly in Malaysia, a state which is good known by its multi-ethnicity, multi-cultures and multi-linguistics. Multicultural fluctuations that ever encountered by Speech Language Diagnosticians are values about acquisition, beliefs and perceptual experience about kid functions in the household, outlooks for child behaviour at different developmental degrees and household perceptual experiences and attitudes toward a Ã¢â¬Å" disablement Ã¢â¬ ( Diane & A ; Froma 2011 ) . Assessment involves roll uping relevant informations about the kid Ã¢â¬Ës conditions to make a diagnosing while diagnosing entails placing and understanding the jobs or shortages of the kid ( Paul 2001 ) . Both assessment and diagnosing are ongoing procedures because the diagnosing of the kid could alter over clip as the turning and development of him or her are besides ongoing ( Haynes & A ; Pindzola 2004 ) . The chief grounds for appraisal are to get at a good apprehension of the kid Ã¢â¬Ës job, to set up the baseline degree of operation, to ease ends be aftering for intercession and to mensurate the advancement of the kid in intervention ( Haynes & A ; Pindzola 2004 ; Paul 2001 ) . Appraisal with kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage is encouraged to see all relevant modes across different contexts utilizing appropriate appraisal tools ( Paul 2001 ; Taylor-Goh 2005 ; Haynes & A ; Pindzola 2004 ) . In add-on, appraisal of developmental age or menta l age is normally used by Speech Language Pathologists during diagnosing to qualify the kid Ã¢â¬Ës functional accomplishments. But, many Speech Language Pathologists excessively have been discouraged to trust entirely on the usage of developmental age appraisal during diagnosing because it could non reflect the high variableness among the kids ( DeVeney et al. 2012 ) . Based on the assessment findings, the planning of intercession plan specifies the ends and the procedure of intercession by sing the kid Ã¢â¬Ës damage, demands and outlooks ( Paul 2001 ; SPA 2001 ; Taylor-Goh 2005 ) . The planning aims to place and develop meaningful and contributing acquisition environment for the kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage in functional day-to-day activities ( ASHA 2005 ) . Hence, relevant and possible schemes, contexts, issues, result and timeline should be documented to ease the service provided by Speech Language Pathologists is coordinated, comprehensive and holistic ( Diane 2011 ; Paul 2001 ; SPA 2001 ; Taylor-Goh 2005 ) . Besides, Speech Language Diagnosticians are strongly encouraged to follow Evidence-Based Practice ( EBP ) to help clinical determination ( ASHA 2005 ; Brankenbury 2008 ; Diane 2011 ; Johnson 2006 ; SPA 2001 ; Taylor-Goh 2005 ) . Evidence-Based Practice ( EBP ) encourages the Speech Language Patholog ists to take consideration of ( a ) current high-quality scientific research ; ( B ) Speech Language Pathologists expertness and experience ; and ( degree Celsius ) household Ã¢â¬Ës penchants, values, and involvements ( Diane 2011 ) . It is an of import portion of effectual and ethical directions as it guides Speech Language Pathologists to extinguish methods which appear no or minimal clinical effects ( Brankenbury 2008 ; Taylor-Goh 2005 ) . Besides, Evidence-Based Practice besides helps the profession of speech linguistic communication pathology to accomplish higher answerability and credibleness ( Johnson 2006 ) . Effective instruction techniques ( ASHA 2005 ; Dunst et Al. 2011 ; Law et al. 1999 ; Law 2003 ) are really of import to find the result of the intervention plan. There are three types Ã¢â¬Ë of intercession methods that are didactic, realistic, and combination of didactic & A ; realistic attacks ( Dunst et al. 2011 ; Law et al. 1999 ; Law 2003 ) . The classification of different type of intercession methods is non purposes for Speech Language Pathologists to take merely one method and utilize it systematically. In fact, it prepares a repertory of methods available for Speech Language Pathologists to fit the acquisition of the kid with the specific ends that have targeted ( Paul 2001 ) . In this manner, the efficiency of the intervention for the kid with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage is maximized. Introduction of appropriate stuffs or activities ( ASHA 2005 ) , single acquisition environment ( ASHA 2005 ; Dunst et Al. 2011 ) , assistive engineerings ( Sand ra & A ; Sahoby 2006 ) and Augmentative and Alternative Communication ( AAC ) systems ( Millar et Al. 2006 ; Rose et Al. 1999 ) are all portion of duties of Speech Language Pathologists in giving intervention to the kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage. These constituents facilitate the acquisition and growth of the kid in a familiar nature environment which is filled with synergistic communicating and societal routines/activities. Besides, the debut besides promotes the kid to generalise the new accomplishments to new state of affairs that would go on in mundane contexts. Back to Malaysia, Joginder Singh et Al. ( 2011 ) reported that Malayan Speech Language Pathologists demonstrated best pattern in many countries but fail to make in some other countries when supplying services to pre-symbolic kids. Approach used in speech linguistic communication pathology direction which consist the coaction of household centred, squad direction and culturally appropriate services is found barely practiced ( Lim 2008-unpublish ) ; Diane 2011 ; Joginder Singh et Al. 2011 ; Othman 2010 ) . Furthermore, Lian & A ; Abdullah ( 2001 ) found that Malayan Speech Language Pathologists were likely to trust on informal appraisals because formal appraisals are limited in the local market. When measuring pre-symbolic kids, Malayan Speech Language Pathologists showed low trust of roll uping communicating sample and roll uping informations out of clinic ( Joginder Singh et Al. 2011 ) . Looking into intercession pattern, Malayan Speech Language Pathologists demonstrate different int ercession attacks and techniques across different scenes ( Lian & A ; Abdullah 2001 ) . In other custodies, Augmentative and Alternative Communication ( AAC ) systems and assistive engineerings are non famously introduced by Malayan Speech Language Pathologists to better the efficiency of the intervention plan ( Joginder Singh et Al. 2011 ) .2.0 RESEARCH QUESTIONSHow Malayan Speech Language Pathologists holistically manage kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage? What are the bing issues faced by Malayan Speech Language Pathologists when pull offing kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage? What are the recommendations for better pattern suggested by Malayan Speech Language Pathologists when pull offing kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage?3.0 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE3.1 General ObjectiveTo analyze Malayan Speech Language Pathologists Ã¢â¬Ë patterns in pull offing kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage.3.2 Specific AimsTo find the specific clinical constituents practiced by Malayan Speech Language Pathologists in pull offing kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage as are attacks used, assessment, planning and intervention. To find the bing issues faced by Malayan Speech Language Pathologists in pull offing kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage. To depict the recommendations suggested by Malayan Speech Language Diagnosticians of better pattern in pull offing kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage.4.0 METHODOLOGY4.1 Research DesignThis is a cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative survey via study.4.2 Sampling PopulationThe population of this survey covers all Malayan Speech Language Pathologists.4.3 Study SiteParticipants will be recruited from all 14 provinces in Malaysia.4.4 Sampling MethodPurposive sampling method is used for this survey. All participants who fulfill the inclusion standards ( Please refer to 4.6 ) will be recruited.4.5 Sampling FrameThe contact lists of Speech Language Pathologists who graduated from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia ( UKM ) and Universiti Sains Malaysia ( USM ) will be obtained in order to administer the study to all alumnas members. The study will be besides mailed or/and posted to all Speech Language Pathologists working with Ministry of Health and to all members listed in the directories of local professional organic structures ( i.e. Malayan Association of Speech-Language & A ; Hearing ( MASH ) and others ) .4.6 Sample Inclusion CriterionParticipants inclusion standards: Qualified Speech Language Pathologists and practising locally. However, Speech Language Pathologists who have non had experience in pull offing kids with Developmental Disability in the Developing Language Stage will be indicated in the study to return the study without farther responses ( Please refer Appendix A ) .4.7 Sample Size CalculationAishah ( 2012-unpublish ) reported that there are 175 SLPs registered in the UKM and USM alumni from local universities by the twelvemonth 2011. Besides Speech Language Pathologists who have obtained their makings locally, Speech Language Pathologists who graduated from overseas are besides included in the survey, with the status that they are presently practising locally. Hence, the population of Malayan Speech Language Pathologists is estimated to be between the scope of 175 to 250 Speech Language Pathologists. The mean of the scope of 210 Speech Language Pathologists will be used as N, in the undermentioned computation: IÃ¢â¬ ¡A?NP ( 1-P ) = 3.84 ten ( 210 ) ( 0.5 ) ( 1-0.5 ) dA? ( N-1 ) + IÃ¢â¬ ¡A?P ( 1-P ) 0.05A? ( 210-1 ) + 3.84 ( 0.5 ) ( 0.5 ) = 137 participants Happening of backdown and bead out of 10 % is farther considered in the sample size computation. Entire topics = nn__ 1-0.1 = _137_ 0.9 = 152 participantssubjects Therefore, a sum of 152 topics participants will be recruited in this survey.6.54.8 Data CollectionThe study utilized for this survey is adapted from several surveies that focus on happening similar results on SLP patterns ( Joginder Singh et Al. 2011 ; Mustaffa Kamal et Al. 2012 ; Othman 2010 ; Stuck 2012 ) . The study is constructed utilizing English because the participants involved in this survey are qualified Malayan Speech Language Pathologists who have English proficiency. The study contains the undermentioned subdivisions: Part A: Demographic Data Part B: Specific Clinical Components 7 parts that are Demographic informations, Approaches used, Assessment, Planning, Treatment, Opinions sing bing issue and Recommendations of better pattern. Close-ended inquiries utilizing 5 points LikertLikert grading and multiple picks are included in the study. Besides, and open-eopen-ended inquiries are besides included. nded inquiries are included. ( Please refer to Appendix A ) . Survey and information sheet will be distributed to the Speech Language Pathologists SLPs via electronic mail and/or gpost. QuestionPro Ã¢â¬Ës online study package will be used to administer the study via electronic mail. Meanwhile, Ffor Speech Language Pathologists SLPs who will have the study and information sheet via postmailing, a reply-paid envelope is included for them to return the study. SLPs will be informed that the returning of completed questionnaire study indicate consent to take part in this survey. A follow-up reminder electronic mail or phone call will be sent to Speech Language Pathologists SLP ten 10 yearss after the initial distribution. A 2nd reminder electronic mail or phone call will be sent 2 hebdomads subsequently.64..96 Validity and Reliability of SurveyThe study will be piloted on 10 participants. Concept, content and face cogency will be determined by modifying the points consequently ( following the pilot survey ) through feedback from the participants. To find how closely related the set of points are grouped in the study, internal dependability of the study constituents will be assessedachieved by ciphering Cronbach Ã¢â¬Ës Alpha Coefficientusing Cronbach Ã¢â¬Ës alpha. This will demo how closely related the set of points are as a group in the study.6.74.10 Statistical TrialThe quantitative informations obtained from closed-ended inquiries in the study will be analyzed utilizing descriptive statistics. From the study, 11 out of 20 closed-ended inquiries are far ther divided into sub-items. Hence, factor analysis via chief component analysis ( PCA ) is used as a information decrease technique. Items in the study that measured the same implicit in concept will be grouped together. Analysis method used by Mathers-Schmidt & A ; Kurlinski ( 2003 ) will be adopted in this survey. Descriptive statistics ( per centums ) of the grouped-items is calculated to look into the grade of which specific clinical constituents are used. First, to find which specific clinical constituents of Speech Language PathologistsSLPs Ã¢â¬Ë pattern are most normally used, the per centum of responses for each reply option ( ne'er, seldom, sometime, normally, or ever ) will be calculated. Percentages of response for option Ã¢â¬Å" normally Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å" ever Ã¢â¬ are combined. The specific clinical constituents are so categorized into 3 groups: ( 1 ) constituents usually/always used by 90 % or more of the topics ; ( 2 ) constituents usually/always used by 50-90 % of the topics ; and ( 3 ) constituents usually/always used by less than 50 % of the topics. Second, consistence of the specific clinical constituents practiced by the topics will be determined. The information will be categorized as follows: ( 1 ) extremely consistent-75 % of topics indicated the same frequence of usage ; ( 2 ) reasonably consistent-50-75 % topics indicated the same frequence of usage ; ( 3 ) and inconsistent-less than 50 % of topics indicated the same frequence of usage for a peculiar clinical constituent.6.84.11 Research Procedure6.94.12 Gantt ChartYear/Month Undertaking Activities 2012 2013 July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mac Apr May Literature Review Ten Ten Ten Ten Ten Ten Ten Ten Ten Ten Proposal Presentation Ten SurveyDevelopment Ten Ten Ten Application for Ethical motives Ten Ten Pilot Study Ten Ten Data Collection Ten Ten Ten Ten Datas Analysis Ten Ten Ten Ten Report Writing Ten Ten Ten Ten Ten Ten Ten Concluding Presentation Ten6.104.13 Information Sheet and Consent FormThe information sheet that will administer to the topics is attached in Appendix B. Meanwhile, the topics will be informed that the returning of completed questionnaire indicate their consent to take part in this survey.