Monday, September 30, 2019

Critical Thinking in Homeland Security Essay

Critical Thinking in Homeland Security Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Homeland Security is an essential part of the security organs that are very crucial in ensuring the protection of the country’s sovereignty. Just as other nations in the world, United States faces significant threats from the external and internal factors. The US established Homeland Security Department in 2003, in an effort to address the external threats and aggression like the September 11 terrorist attacks (Pruitt, 2003, â€Å"The 9/11 Commission,† 2005). Therefore, the main objective of the department is to prevent terrorist attacks in the US. Additionally, the department has to minimize the exposure of the nation to terrorism and minimizing the injuries that results from the attacks, if attacks occur.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To achieve its mandate the department applies several skills. These skills are aimed at determining the likelihood of a threat and establishing the credibility of the threat as per the information provided. Among the skills used is the critical thinking. By definition, critical thinking refers to the ability by the department personnel to make clear, rational judgments (Paul & Elder, 2009). This means that the decisions regarding security should be arrived through a well thought out processes (Pruitt, 2003). Critical thinking under homeland security focuses on crucial elements of thought and asking the relevant questions. This means that the department has to evaluate every piece of evidence at their disposal in order to develop appropriate security solutions to the country. The discussion put forward below will aim at establishing what critical thinking method model is appropriate for the decision-making within the structures of homeland security (â€Å"The 9/11 Commission,† 2005). The reason behind this inquiry is highly dependent on the fact that there are different critical thinking models. These models are very useful in the since they help to find the best and effective solution in homeland parameter. However, different models offer different results. Discussion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The September 11 attack brought about unprecedented need for good, efficient and effective security apparatus. With the introduction of the Homeland Security Department, the country was placed at a position to deal with the terrorism threats. The terrorism activities are currently very dynamic and in return there is a need for the solutions that might meet these challenges (Pruitt, 2003). As a consequence, the homeland security personnel is require to meet the ever rising need for increased demand of the security services as well as meeting the high placed accountability standards. To achieve these requirements they have to learn to become highly skilled in their level of thinking, as well as reasoning abilities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The fundamental reason for the need to improve skills is that the employees have to analyze all the massive information, understand it, identify the problems and offer solution (Paul & Elder, 2009). However, the processing of this massive information comes against the race of time. Homeland security department has to make timely decision that would help to preempt any threats that may arise or control the already existing threats (Pruitt, 2003). Additionally, the strategies employed by the terrorist are changing day in day out, and as well these changes must be encompassed in the decision which the department is undertaking. For instance, before the September 11 attack, the defense apparatus restricted themselves to biological and chemical threats. Moreover, the use of airplane as a tool to carry out terrorism strikes was covered by defense agencies like the Pentagon (â€Å"The 9/11 Commission,† 2005). On the other hand, the threat of airplane strike was not addressed as the security agencies believed this would result to giving the terrorist an additional tool to their disposal.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The example about the use of airplane as a tool of terrorism indicates an ineffective manner of using the available information to mitigate the terrorist attacks. In this regard, critical thinking is very essential in manner in which the homeland security handles the information they acquire to handle security issues or threats (Paul & Elder, 2009). This is mainly, because critical thinking offers the prediction and diagnosis analysis for security issues. Prediction depends chiefly on the ability of the security organs to be able to think ahead. Thinking ahead, as part of critical thinking, dictates that the security organs are able to establish the likely causes of terrorism and probable outcomes (Kiltz, 2009). Diagnosis means the analysis of previous threats which in turn helps to extrapolate the likely future events. In this regard, security organs are able to identify their past failures and in turn making amendments. Additionally, the organs are able to replicate past successes to the future. Best Critical Thinking Model   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   While understanding the importance of the critical thinking skills, there are several critical thinking models at the disposal of security organs to address any homeland security issues. It is very crucial to put a lot of emphasis on the fact that critical thinking is basic requirement for security decisions facing the country (Paul & Elder, 2009). Therefore, to identify the best critical thinking model it would be prudent to learn the two factors that will play a very major role in determining the best model. Critical thinking in the context of homeland security is fundamentally dependent on the most important factor for good decision-making and the nature of the homeland security context (Browne & Keeley, 2007). 1. Decision making   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Critical thinking is fundamentally aimed at arriving at appropriate decision. Every decision made or arrived at should be able to offer solution in the context of homeland security. In this light, the decision of the security apparatus should be able to effectively prevent the threats that arise as well as minimize the damages is events occur (Kiltz, 2009). Thus, critical thinking plays a pivotal role in decision-making process. On the same note, the best decision-making model is exceedingly reliant on the right questions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The right question are said to be the main factor that enable effective decisions to be made in all the fields of the society, security being inclusive (Kiltz, 2009). Questions are a good guiding factor while looking for the appropriate results. One, right questions create a structure that our thinking relies upon, that is to say, right questions are essential in finding the suitable materials or information that are essential to the decision or solutions. Secondly, right questions play a vital role of determining the course of our thinking. In this regard, the right questions are crucial element of individual thinking (Kiltz, 2009). This indicates that the right questions part of the homeland security parameters, in that they would help the decision makers in this context will arrive the best solutions possible to the various security challenges. 2. The nature of homeland security   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The processes and the activities surrounding decision making in the parameters or the context of the homeland security are substantially complex. The complexity comes in two levels: one, there amount of data or information being processed is extremely large and second, there are a lot of dynamics and variables in homeland security decisions (Paul & Elder, 2009). Therefore, the decision-making process has a higher requirement of exhaustive scrutiny of all the probable accompanying implications of any decision made. In addition, the scrutiny extends other available options prior or before the enforcing any decision passed. A good example relates to diversion tactics that are highly employed by terrorist (Davis, 2012). This is where a threat is identified in a particular location while in reality the actual threat is in another place. Without appropriate critical thinking capabilities, the security apparatus are expected to put enough emphasi s on areas which are reported to have the threat while leaving the other places vulnerable.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Understanding the nature of homeland security is pegged on homeland security operations and the past failure. Past failures help to understand what part of the process failed and how efficiently and effectively did homeland rise from their falls. For instance from the example above, if the severity of a homeland security event was increased by the misjudgment stated above, in future homeland security would put all efforts at protecting all places equally while still putting emphasis on any information gathered (Paul & Elder, 2009). That fact encompasses a crucial part of the critical thinking in such a security decision-making process.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In effect, the most effective critical thinking model should be all-inclusive. Inclusivity means that all the available alternatives should be taken into account while simultaneously evaluating the possible outcomes associated with each likely action. The module applied is similar to a game theory model (Davis, 2012). In such a model, the homeland security is supposed to establish every strategy available to them as well as those available to the opponents, the terrorists. This would help to preempt most, if not all, of the threats posed by various terrorists groups. Therefore, every strategy has probable action, which in turn will deliver results. It would be the aim of homeland to select the most applicable strategy and take an action that would offer the best-expected outcome (Paul & Elder, 2009).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For example, through information and intelligence gathering, the security organs in the United States had all the necessary, adequate and relevant information to indicate that an attack was eminent. This information was prior to the September 11 attack, which detailed the Al Qaeda plans to attack the US. This shows that the security organs had the available strategies of the opponents. However, the organs failed to select the best strategy and their actions failed to meet the required results (â€Å"The 9/11 Commission,† 2005).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The time constraints also play a critical part in undertaking any security decision. The reason behind this is that despite the large volumes of information that need to processed, the uncertainty of when a homeland security event is likely to occur needs timely decision-making. Using the September 11 example, it can be observed that the security organs failed to meet the timely decision requirement (Kiltz, 2009). Although all the information processed indicated the likelihood of a terrorism incident in United States, no timely action was taken to preempt the threats due to the argument that the decision process was at its preliminary stage.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Additionally, homeland security should be in a position to predict the opponents’ likely cause of action and also putting a lot of effort towards preventing the threats preempting the homeland actions. This is attached to diversion tactics, where the threats mature to events in places other than those indicated in the threats information. This was the strategy that was employed by the Al Qaeda to beat homeland security at their game in September 11 (â€Å"The 9/11 Commission,† 2005). Prior to the attack, the information gathered indicated that the threats were highly in United States departments and agencies that were beyond borders. The fact that overseas parts of homeland security were threatened, the homeland skewed its efforts towards the external offices and agencies. Consequently, the Al Qaeda anticipated the moves of homeland security and they counteracted by attacking the internal departments (â€Å"The 9/11 Commissi on,† 2005). Critical thinking should help to homeland security to fill all the available loopholes that may expose their operations and the country was vast. 3. Right Questions Model   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As stated earlier there are several models at the disposal of the homeland security, but among them asking the right questions takes the reign. There are several factors that have heavily tilted the odds towards the right questions model of critical thinking (Browne & Keeley, 2007). First, the model plays a pivotal role in addressing the various loopholes found under the nature of homeland security. For instance the failures that were capitalized by the Al Qaeda in the September 11 attack (â€Å"The 9/11 Commission,† 2005). The right questions model aims at querying all the information available. The inquisitive nature of the model allows the various security issues to be determined as well as determining the necessary conclusions. The conclusions are highly dependent on the reasoning, assumptions, and clarity of words.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are numerous benefits that accompany this essential model of right questions. To begin with the model is highly useful in offering a well detailed analysis of the decision made as well as the cause of actions undertaken. When comparing this model with the other models such as the elements of thought thinking model, right questions model outranks them all in enabling homeland to meet its objectives or targets (Browne & Keeley, 2007). Furthermore, it is established that the model has other models easily inbuilt. Mainly, homeland security establishes the positive elements of the other models and encompasses them in the right questions model. As a consequence, the models offer comprehensive and well-contained solutions out of all the available alternatives.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In addition, the said model is highly interactive as it offers an all rounded analysis of the various situations. The analysis is crucial in timely and effective decision-making as well as in actualization of the actions set. Additionally, the model allows homeland to identify the instances of fallacies in reasoning (â€Å"The 9/11 Commission,† 2005). Well thought out decision should not be guided by a belief, myth of misconceptions. This allows homeland security process of verification and validation of evidence to be thorough and unbiased. If some essential information is missed, the model would results to different alternatives. Right questions model bases its success on availability of possible alternatives. Therefore, the model puts a lot emphasis on the available information which helps decision makers to arrive at the best possible alternative. On the other hand, the other models have some constraints in their operations (Bro wne & Keeley, 2007). For instance, the Element of Thought thinking model success is highly dependent on the emphasis given to some four aspects of decision-making. Using the Model   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Several failures have been seen under the dome of homeland security. These failures are highly attributed as the indirect contributors of past events like the September 11 attacks. The right questions model can easily address these past challenges (Browne & Keeley, 2007). Moreover, the model is the key to providing support to the homeland security decision-making process as well as creating and enhancing the credibility of the actions undertaken by homeland security.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The right questions model is dependent on an extensive spectral analysis. This analysis is the foundation of critical thinking. As a consequence, the right questions model helps to evaluate all the possible alternatives and their accompanying actions; which aim at getting the best possible solution. The model has been extensively used under the homeland security context to eradicate and lessen threats like the September 11 attacks. For example, prior to September 11 attacks the United States intelligence had gathered that there were several threats directed towards the United States institutions outside the country (â€Å"The 9/11 Commission,† 2005). Lack of a wider spectral analysis, the homeland security failed in its job (Browne & Keeley, 2007). In dependence to the information, the homeland security strengthened the security agencies beyond borders and failed to do so with the domestic agencies. As a consequence, the Al Qaeda us ed this loophole to carry out the attacks in the US soil (The 9/11 Commission, 2005). Under right questions model, an in-depth analysis would have taken place prompting homeland security to reinforce all the security agencies across the board. Such analysis would have enabled homeland security to alleviate the September 11 attacks. The alleviation would have been achieved through the fact that the homeland security would have easily identify and eliminated all the security exposures that faced the United states at large without overemphasis on the overseas institutions (Browne & Keeley, 2007). The fallacies of logic resulted to this misguided conclusions. While combating the Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, there was a belief that the US turf was safe from the Al Qaeda actions. This resulted to homeland security ignoring the domestic security need for dealing with terrorism.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Additionally, there were not efforts to fill the information gaps that were there before the attacks. There poor statistics since there limited activities that were undertaken by security agencies in the United States (â€Å"The 9/11 Commission,† 2005). The model selected put emphasis on identifying the missing information which in turns increases the chances of obtaining the best strategy and the appropriate cause of action to be employed. For instance, the evidence provided that an attack was imminent, but there were no prompt actions that were undertaken to mitigate these threats. Also, despite the availability of evidence that indicated that there were terrorist threats facing the US, no security actions were undertaken in time (Browne & Keeley, 2007). The claims behind the lack of actions were that the decision process was still at preliminary stages, indicating the rigidity of the security operations. The selected model offers flexible and dynamic solutions to challenges. Through the right questions model, appropriate decisions would have been arrive at early enough to mitigate the threats. Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Critical thinking is crucial for the undertakings of the homeland security department. This is because there are significant complexities of the decisions and accompanying actions. The critical thinking models are several but one outranks the others; the right questions model is very essential in establishing the right decisions and cause of actions. The model employs a wider spectral analysis strategy with an aim of achieving efficient, effective and timely solutions. Looking at the applicability of the model against the events of September 11 attacks the model would achieve better-desired results (â€Å"The 9/11 Commission,† 2005). References Browne, M., & Keeley, S. (2007). Asking the right questions. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall. Davis, V. (2012). Use Critical Thinking to Overcome Personal Biases. IN Homeland Security. Retrieved 22 January 2015, from Kiltz, L. (2009). Developing Critical Thinking Skills in Homeland Security and Emergency Management Courses. Journal Of Homeland Security And Emergency Management, 6(1), 1-20. Retrieved from Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2009). The miniature guide to critical thinking. Dillon Beach, Calif.: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Pruitt, K. (2003). Modeling Homeland Security: A Value Focused Thinking Approach (1st ed., pp. 1-236). Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Department of the Air Force, Air University. Retrieved from The 9/11 Commission,. (2005). The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (1st ed., pp. 1-400). Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from Source document

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Continental Airlines: Flying High with Its Data Warehouse

The airline industry is a competitive market in which some airlines are profitable while others are not. During the late 1990s, most airlines were lucrative because fuel costs were relatively low and travel was at an all time high amongst flyers. Recently, the airline industry has taken a severe hit due to the increased rate of oil, the 9/11 attacks, and anti-traffic control system to name a few. However, Continental Airlines remains one of the largest airlines in the United States holding its rank in fourth place amongst other airline companies.Initially, Continental Airlines was not highly regarded because of its information technology (IT) and organizational culture. Unlike other airline companies, Continental Airlines has taken extreme measures by adopting new strategies to overhaul its IT department altogether. The information systems Continental had in place was old and outdated because it did not provide information of its most valuable customers. The Transaction Processing Fa cility (TPF) was the old IBM mainframe system Continental’s IT team had during the late 1990s. The system was not designed for customer service.In order for Continental to accomplish its goals, the IT team realized the need to replace its old mainframe. The IT team determined it needed to integrate into one system by consolidating the airline’s disparate customer management relationship (CRM) systems. As a result, Continental joined forces with Teradata to build an enterprise data warehouse comprised of 25 enterprise systems. The warehouses consist of â€Å"schedules, reservations, customer profiles and demographics, airline maintenance records and schedules, employee and crew payroll, and customer care† (Rainer & Turban, 2008, p.132).Additionally, executives of Continental Airlines were able to develop the Customer Value Metric (CVM), which enables them to determine how much money customers spend with its airlines and the costs of flying the customer as well. T he data warehouse is a repository of historical data that assist with business operations to include â€Å"data mining, decision support, and querying applications† (Rainer & Turban, 2008, p. 117). Many components make up the data warehouse such as business dimensions in which data is organized by customers, vendors, product, price level, and region.The data in various databases are encoded differently and kept historically for many years. Once data enters the warehouse it is not updated. Databases use online transaction processing (OLTP), in which business transactions are processed online as they occur. Typically, data warehouses are designed to support decision makers by using online analytical processing (OLAP) for the analysis of mass data by end users. Data is stored in a multidimensional structure as well. All data in the data warehouse comes from Continental Airlines operational databases which can be relational databases as well.These components enable users access t o corporate data for analyzing. Special software such as extract, transform, and load (ETL) are used to process data to later store in a data warehouse. However, only a summary of data is transferred to the warehouse. This data is organized in a form that is easy for end users when accessing. The reason why Continental Airlines remains successful is due to their strategies for improving and enhancing quality customer service with many functions implemented by their IT team.Continental Airlines main focus is increasing customer rewards and incentives of frequent flyers that are loyal customers, while gaining new customers that are profitable too. Continental Airlines contributes its success to the quality customer service and customer satisfaction it provides by expanding its routes and serving meals on every flight. Some airline companies have gone bankrupt while others simply choose not to improve their quality of customer service. As a result, customers have become irritated due t o the lack of reasonable rates, delays, and strict rules of other airline companies.In closing, information technology is essential for airline companies. Some airline companies may choose to stick with basic airline technology. However, an airline company can enhance its level of customer service and profitability based on the type of changes it needs to make. Executives of an airline company can look to its IT department to strategize ways to utilize information systems that best fits its goals, business practices, mission statement, customer service, and customer satisfaction.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Management information system db5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Management information system db5 - Essay Example s is also valid because a similar trend occurred between the years 2005 and 2006 before regaining the increasing trend (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2011). The decision by the Attorney General’s to establish computer crime as a priority for the justice agency also means that the crime is becoming more significant than other types of crimes (Offices of the United States Attorneys, n.d.). Three different types of cyber crime that I am aware of are â€Å"cyber trespass,† â€Å"cyber theft,† and â€Å"cyber violence† (Cornelius and Hermann, 2011, p. 21, 22). Cyber trespass involves real or virtual access of a person’s computer, causing damage such as accessing information from the computer or introducing a virus into the computer. Cyber theft however defined unauthorized access and use data from a computer through the internet while cyber violence involves psychological damage or incitement into physical

Project Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 2

Project Management - Essay Example The PFI is termed as a more formal approach for PPP adoption. PFI in simplest form is termed as Design Build Finance and Operate (DBFO) system. Procurements of material can be made using different modes in general, but the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) and Public Private Partnership (PPP) stands distinctly apart in that it allows the contribution of private parties as well in public sector projects. This not only helps in having better options for the project manager, but it also provides momentum to the project towards its completion on time. The PFI generally involves long term contracts ranging from 15-30 years with private sector contractors for providing quality services as per the agreement terms. The PPP forum states that1 such an arrangement ‘typically involves the joint ownership of a special purpose vehicle established under company law’. These are in fact the basic minimum conditions that need to be taken into account. Things like financial background, track record, mutual chemistry of the private partner with the public sector organization are the one’s which need to be taken into while finalizing the partnership program Inviting PFI/PPP is not free from potential disadvantages, if there are some problems in the execution process. The contractual obligation in PFI/PPP is meant to safeguard all the parties involved, but at times the cumbersome process and the terms of the contractual agreement works to the disadvantage of potential bidders. In addition the amount of flexibility that is available in purely public sector project is missing in PPP projects. Quite often the pressure of delivering on time takes its toll on the workforce, who finds themselves stretched beyond their limits, but such voices often remain mum because private companies do not encourage the unions within their companies. A prerequisite for such partnerships is to

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Organization Behaviour and Leadership Development Scenarios Essay

Organization Behaviour and Leadership Development Scenarios - Essay Example Scenario two setting involved unifying two competing junior employees i.e. Rosa and oli by finding common and unifying ideas, hence unifying them is of great importance in meeting the company objectives. The objective of this scenario was to get oli and Rosa to agree on maintaining customer retention in the call center at 65 % and also getting everyone to agree on using automated phone system. The steps I took to resolve this scenario were, actively listening to oli and Rosa, encouraging oli and Rosa to communicate to help reach an effective agreement, through asserting my leadership power toward ending the squabbles between them. Using work strategies tactics of constantly reminding them the goal of the organization in addition to using tension strategies where I introduced relaxing ideas that aimed to eliminate tension created by oli and Rosa The key learning point that emerged from this scenario was that tension in at workplace can lead to little work being accomplished, it is of great paramount to stay neutral where employee friction is involved in order to help them out, through focusing on goals of organization and constant reminder help people to work harmoniously, effective communication within organization facilitate dialogue that helps to resolve dialogue between employees and creating a kind of numeration system that helps employers to cooperate and work together.Supporting theory and academic insight for this scenario can be derived from democratic leadership.... ning to oli and Rosa, encouraging oli and Rosa to communicate to help reach an effective agreement, through asserting my leadership power toward ending the squabbles between them. Using work strategies tactics of constantly reminding them the goal of the organization in addition of using tension strategies where I introduced relaxing ideas that aimed to eliminate tension created by oli and Rosa The key learning point that emerged from this scenario was that tension in at work place can lead to little work being accomplished, it is of great paramount to stay neutral where employee friction is involved in order to help them out, through focusing on goals of organization and constant reminder help people to work harmoniously, effective communication within organization facilitate dialogue that help to resolve dialogue between employees and creating a kind of numeration system that help employee to cooperate and work together to achieve set goals in addition to engagement in team buildin g exercises. Supporting theory and academic insight for this scenario can be derive from democratic leadership , which is characterized by emphasizes in group participation , where decision and discussion are encouraged by leaders hence giving team member a voice in decision making (Goleman, 2000). Democratic leadership style builds flexibility and responsibility in an organization which in turn help in generating new ideas. . (Goleman, 2000).Through listening to team members in an organization which is encouraged by democratic leadership, leaders learn to resolve dispute between employees and in decision making. (Goleman, 2000). Third Scenario The third scenario set up was learning to manage up, where it is critical important for a leader to mange his juniors but at the same time have

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Good Night and Good Luck Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Good Night and Good Luck - Movie Review Example As with all entities which do not posses power, new media was also controlled and influenced by different spheres of power. This was the period when the cold war was at its initial stages. The government was using all channels of communication it could to gather support for its anti communism agenda. This agenda allowed American governments to allocate billions of dollars to defense contracts and war spending. This cold war mass hysteria was being sponsored by many different spheres of power. The propaganda was so strong that being a communist became a crime. The government used all resources that it could muster to spread this hatred towards communism. The television was in that time period a new phenomenon. The attraction of television to masses was tremendous and very reliable. People took it as a new and reliable source because there was a lack of understanding about it. The government tried to use this as a propaganda tool for their anti communist agenda. One senator of Wisconsin took this as a personal crusade and went to all means necessary to propagate his anti communist agenda. There were however some men even than who understood the real place of television journalism. Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin faced severe criticism and retaliation from the CBS new team. These people were willing to fight to any means necessary to ensure that trust prevailed at all cost. The main man in this fight for the freedom and independence of new media was Edward R. Murrow. His team included co-producer Fred Friendly and reporter Joseph Wershba. The main revenues as is understood came from the commercial. At that time there was no concept of paper per view. Therefore television channels were completely dependent on TV commercials to fund their operations. Edward R. Murrow and his team had to face a huge pressure from many different corporate sponsors as well. When Gore Vidal said that television was the first time in world

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

GOP Debates on 09.07.2011 and 10.18.2011 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

GOP Debates on 09.07.2011 and 10.18.2011 - Essay Example It was clear that the debate would be aggressive as Romney and Perry exchanged blows. Both candidates continuously challenged each other with allegations one every given opportunity. The debate was undoubtedly crucial as the economy has been lagging and Obama’s popularity has been diminishing. Throughout the debate, it seemed that Perry was confident and poise even with criticism that were alleged against him. His illustration of running a country with the same policies as Bush and Regan made him formidable against his opponents. Perry came out aggressive, attacking Romney often and early as he tried to gain leverage with the voters. Moreover, he continued to avoid the accusations that were made to him. It seemed as he did not finish strong at all, but did able to leave his impression. Perry and Romney’s clash was the focal point as Romney attempted to mimick the same strategies as McCain and Dole. It was evident that Romney wanted to gain leverage but failed to do so. After dodging the accusations from Paul, Romney counterattacked. Romney seemed to look defensive in his stand. It seems as if Perry will dynamically modify the GOP race. While Perry and Romney dominated the packed, Gingrich and Paul did make some impact. Gingrich seemed to be confident at times with his plan to increase employment but failed to gain any momentum as he was too focused on attacking the media. Similarly, Ron Paul offered a strong defensive stand against libertarianism, but failed to expand his argument as he continued to emphasize non-trivial matters such as vaccines for HPV, eliminating TSA agents and FMA. Furthermore, it seemed that Paul promised too much financial stability that seemed too good to be true at this point. It seemed as if Paul and Herman Cain were on the same playing field. Herman Cain good off to a good start as he insisted on reducing taxes but was shot down of the sexual allegations that continued to diminish his reputation. Rick Santorum and Jon Hu ntsman, both failed to solidify foundation. Rick Santorum was passionate but kept deterring from main issues as he kept using big words that were not comprehended by the public. Santorum failed to gain any ground like Cain, who was already having a hard time feuding against accusations that were made against him. Jon Huntsman, another Republican nominee, was clearly out of sync as he failed to build his repertoire in any manner. His futile attempts to build his reputation as a diplomat seemed to be quite interesting. The only female of the Republican party, Michele Bachmann, seemed to be a very interesting yet fanatic character as she proposed a universal $2.00 per gas gallon. Overall, the essence of this Republican debate symbolized the critical events for the upcoming elections. THE GOP DEBATE ON OCT 18th The GOP debate on October 18th was another testy affair as candidates continued to spar with each other on critical issues such as foreign policy, immigration, and tax plans. It seemed to be so feisty that New Gingrich, the Republican candidate, took a huge shot at Obama as he remarked, â€Å"Unlike President Obama, I’m glad to be in Las Vegas. It’s a great place to have a convention.† Similarly, Rick Perry did not wait for his chance to take shots at Herman Cain, criticizing him of his 9-9-9 plan as he stated, â€Å"

Monday, September 23, 2019

Concept analys Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Concept analys - Assignment Example They are proven to have logical connections, physical connections and causal relations (Sassen, 2000, p. 240). Concepts must provide explanations to certain phenomena or events using intuitive thinking which may provide a better understanding using reasons, symbols and cause-and-effect. In addition, concepts have been created by people to represent things to provide meanings to them so that people may get explanations leading to understanding (Novacek and Smrz, 2006, p. 70). In short, concepts do not need to be physically tested as they can be products of intuitive thinking. Concepts are developed when certain phenomena exist with little or no explanations (Dashiff, 2010). People look for the explanations for the events that happen around them so they can better act and solve if ever problems exist. New concepts may also be formed when the established concepts are already out-of-date which require ground-breaking explanations to adapt to the current state of the phenomena (Dashiff, 2010). Change has been constant and some concepts may not be able to adjust to the environment and development so new concepts must be created. Concepts may also come out when there are gaps between practice and research (Dashiff, 2010). Research has been present to provide evidences and support to improve the practice of certain professions. In nursing, it has been necessary to have concept analysis to provide further development for the practice of that profession. Concepts provide the framework for nurses and nursing students to understand certain phenomena in their profession by providing meaning and connections with abstract ideas (Fitzpatrick and Kazer, 2012). For concept analysis to be successful, various traditional approaches have been developed. Concept analysis started with the approach created by Wilson which is composed of 11 steps (Meleis, 2012, p. 372). The steps must come to conclusion in choosing the words that best fit the meaning and concept applied

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Marketing Plan Essay Example for Free

Marketing Plan Essay Marketing Plan is defined as written plan that is used to guide an organization’s marketing activities for a period of two years or less. It is quite detailed and specific, and it helps an organization coordinate the many steps and people that play a role in marketing. * Marketing plan is also called as tactical plans or short-term plans. * Strategic plan or a long-term plan is a three-year or more that is more general and less detailed than tactical plans. REQUIREMENTS FOR AN EFFECTIVE MARKETING PLAN 1. Fact-based It must build on previous research and analysis. A plan is established on managerial hunches is like a house of cards; if one key assumption is proven wrong, the whole plan falls apart. 2. Organize and coordinate It must be as specific and detailed as possible. It needs to clearly identify the departments and people responsible for specific tasks; it must also describe the promotional and other materials that are required. The required level of sportsmanship should be clarified, including the quality and level of effort and service from all involved. 3. Programmed It must be orchestrated so that activities are carefully sequence. Timing is vitally important in marketing. Thus, a marketing plan must have a detailed, staged timetable. 4. Budgeted Every marketing plan must be budgeted carefully. In fact, several tentative budgets should be prepared before the organization decides on a final figure. 5. Flexible Unforeseen events will happen. Therefore, no plan should be cast in stones. The marketing plan should be adjusted if it appears that objective will definitely not be achieved, or if there are unexpected competitive moves. Contingency planning must built in. This means allowing some room in the plan and marketing budget to take care of unexpected events. 6. Controllable Making a plan work as it was originally designed is perhaps even more difficult than developing it in the first place. Every plan must contain measurable objectives and ways to determine, during the planning period, if adequate process is being made toward satisfying these objectives. The plan must also define who is responsible for measuring progress. 7. Internally consistent and interrelated Most parts of a marketing plan is interrelated and, therefore, need to be consistent. For example, advertising, internet marketing and other promotions must work together for better for greatest impact using integrated marketing communication (IMC). 8. Clear and simple Being detailed does not have to mean difficult. It is not enough that the plan’s architect is the only one who understands it. The efforts of many go into creating a successful marketing plan. Objectives and tasks must be clearly communicated. Possible areas of overlap, confusion, or misunderstanding needs to be eliminated. BENEFITS OF HAVING A MARKETING PLAN 1. Activities matched with target markets. Assuming that a segmented marketing strategy is being used, a plan ensures that the activities are focused only on chosen target markets. One of the steps in writing the plan is detailing the marketing mix (8 Ps) on a market-by-market basis. Budget waste from appealing to unattractive target markets is avoided. 2. Consistency of objectives and target-market priorities. The questions: â€Å"How far should the plan go to meet objectives?† and â€Å"Should each target market get equal attention?† are resolved by a good marketing plan, which ensures that the level of effort is consistent with the marketing objectives for each target markets and the relative size of each market. The more ambitious is the objective, the greater the required effort. 3. Common terms of reference. A marketing plan details activities for many people both within and outside an organization. A good plan provides common terms of reference for all. It carefully coordinates their efforts. It improves communication among those responsible for marketing and is great help in orienting outside advisors such as advertising agency staff and website designers. 4. Assistance in measuring marketing success A marketing plan is a tool of marketing management, because it provides the basis for controlling and evaluating marketing activities. 5. Continuity in long-term planning Marketing plans complement strategic market plans and provide a link between short and long-term planning. They ensure that an organization’s long-term goalsare always kept in focus. Because they are carefully rationalized and detailed, marketing plans remain useful even if their originators leave the organization. CONTENTS OF A MARKETING PLAN There are three parts to a marketing plan: the execurive summary, the marketing plan rationale, and the implementation plan. 1. Executive Summary is a brief summary of the major highlights of the marketing plan; it is for the organization’s executives to quickly review. The executive summary should be no more than two to four pages long and should be easy to read. It is called â€Å"executive† because executives can pursue it quickly, but still get it a ggod grasp of the main reason, intiatives, and costs for the marketing plan. A good approach is to sum up the highlights of each of the main sections of the markting plan rationale and implementation plaan. These highlights can be presented in the order in which they appear in the plan, according to the five key questions in the hospitality and travel marketing system. 2. Marketing plan rationale explains the facts, analyses and assumptions upon which the marketing plan is based. It describe the marketing strategies, target markets, positioning approaches, and marketing objectives seleccted for the plaaning period. The marketing plan rationale provides a historic record for those putting together future marketing plans and strategic market plans. It is also very helpful to outside advisors, such as advertising agencies and website designers, who are asked to handle only one specific task. The marketing plan rationale has two parts: a. Situation Analysis Highlights (where are we now?) is a study organizations strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities. It plays an important role in constructing marketing plans because marketing plans must build upon the organization’s marketing strengths, address major competitive weaknesses, and capitalize on identified opportunities. * Environmental Analysis The marketing plan should list and briefly discuss the major opportunities and threats presented. It should explain what impact is expected during the planning period. * Location and Community Analysis New factory or plant openings, major events to be staged, business closures or workforce reductions, residential development, industrial expansion, and new highway construction or redesign are just a few things that can have a very positive or negative effect on an organization or destination in short time span. The events should be identified and summarized in the marketing plan, and their impacts reviewed. * Primary Competitor Analysis It should also highlight each side’s competitive strengths and weaknesses. * Market Potential Analysis Should include the highlights of special marketing research studies. * Services Analysis The market plan should discuss such development projects and how they will be integrated with other marketing-mix (8P) activities. * Marketing Position and Plan Analysis The marketing plan and position analysis does just that; it goes over what has been done before so important lessons can be learned for future marketing planning. A synopsis of the organization’s current positioning in its target markets and the effectiveness of activities in previous marketing plans is presented. * Major Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Constraints This part of the plan is similar to summary. It forces marketers to consolidate all key situation analysis and other research findings. It should involve attaching relative importance weightings and priorities to identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and constraints. b. Selected Marketing Strategy (Where would we be like to be?) This details the strategy that the organization will follow in the next one to two years. It explains the facts, assumptions, and decisions influence strategy choices. * Market Segmentation and Target markets The plan should briefly review the segmental approach and characteristics used to divide the market. Some statistics should be presented on the size of the market segments and the organization’s penetration or market share of each. The selected target markets should be discussed, along with the reasons for choosing them. It is also useful to briefly review why other market segments are not being targeted wnd how the chosen target markets will interact with each other. * Marketing Strategy The plan should explain the analysis and assumptions that supported these choices. * Marketing Mixes The market plan should review these individually for each target market. A more detailed list of activities comes later in the implementation plan. * Positioning Approaches The marketing plan should explain how the positioning approaches will be reflected in each marketing-mix element (8 Ps). * Marketing Objectives The objectives for each target market should be clearly stated. They have to be result-oriented, stated in numerical terms, and time specific. A good idea suggested by some experts is to break up each objective into milestones. This means dividing each objective into sub-objectives with specific time deadlines. 3. Implementation plan (action plan) details the activities, marketing budget, staff responsibilities, timetable, and method of controlling, measuring and evaluating activities. The function of implementation plan is to specify all the required activities , responsibilities, cost and budget, time schedules, and control and evaluation procedures. It is sometimes called an action plan. A. Activities Plan (How do we get there?) It details the marketing mixes for each target market selected. It provides the specifics on the entire task required for each mix element of each target market. * Activities by Target Market All plan activities should be listed and described. It is best to do this separately for each marketing-mix element, and to arrange task in a time schedule based on when they will be initiated. * Responsibilities for Activities In most cases, several departments or divisions, many organization employees, and some outside firms will play a role in implementing the marketing plan. They must know what is expected in each one of them. A good way to do this is to know the description of responsibilities into the marketing plan and to identify each responsible party in the timetable and activity schedule. * Timetable and Activity Schedule This is a key part of the plan that is frequently referred to as the plan is being implemented. It should show each activity’s starting and completion dates, where the activity is to be carried out, and the persons responsible for the activity. B. Marketing Budget (How do we get there?) Every marketing plan should include a detailed budget that outlines how much will be spent on each of the 8 Ps or marketing-mix element for each target market. Knowing how much money to allocate to marketing as a difficult decision, but a good marketing budget should meet these four criteria: * Comprehensive All marketing activities or task or task are identified and estimated. * Coordinated Budgeting for all activities or tasks is carefully coordinated to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and to maximize the synergy among budget items. * Practical The budget specifies the sources of the money and human resources for the marketing activities and tasks. * Realistic Marketing budget cannot be set in isolation from other departments’ priorities and activities. They have to be related to the organization’s resources and position in the industry sector. WAYS TO ESTABLISH MARKETING BUDGETS The most effective is known as the objective-and-task or empirical method. This process follows the zero-based budgeting idea, which means that every budget starts at zero each year and then builds up activity. A multi-stage budgeting process is used. The advantages of four budgeting approaches are as follows: 1. Historical or Arbitrary Budgeting This is a very simple approach. A certain amount or percentage is added to the last marketing budget. The budget increase is often set close to the economy’s rate inflation. 2. Rule-of-thumb Budgeting This approach is also known as the percentage-of-sales or heuristic method. In this method, the budget is calculated using an established industry sector average, and is usually a percentage of total sales revenues. 3. Competitive Budgeting This approach is also called competitive-parity approach. Like the previous methods, this one is easy to use. All that is needed is information on what competitors are budgeting for marketing, which can be found by reading published materials on these organizations or by studying their annual reports. Because this method begins by assuming that some amount will be spent in relation to a specific competitor, kt is nat a zero-based approach. 4. Objective-and-Task Budgeting This works exactly the way it sounds; marketing objectives are set first and then the activities or tasks to achieve them are detailed. The budget starts at nothing, which implies that it is a zero-based approach. Some called it build-up method, because an organization establishes the budget from the bottom up rather than starting with a total amount and then deciding how to spend it. C. Control Procedures (How do we know if we get there?) Controlling the plan is a marketing management function. To control effectively, the manager must know what is expected (desired results), when it is expected (progress points or milestones), who it is expected of, (responsible parties), and how expectations are to be measured (measures or metrics). Financial control of the marketing plan is achieved through budgeting and periodic reports that compare budgeted with actual expenditures. D. Evaluation Procedures (How do we know if we got there?) The ultimate test of a marketing plan’s success is the extent to which its marketing objectives are achieved. In addition to this type of analysis, results must be reviewed carefully on an objective-by-objective basis. Effective evaluation requires expected results and measurement techniques, metrics, performance standards, and a timetable for evaluation.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Filipino Psychology Essay Example for Free

Filipino Psychology Essay Arts in the Philippines started even before the colonization of the country. It has different fields and expressions which are mostly religious. In any way, these native arts are on the verge of being lost now since the masses are all focused on foreign cultures forgetting their own. Painting Filipino painting as a whole can be seen as an amalgamation of many cultural influences, though it tends to be more Western in its current form with Eastern roots. Early Filipino painting can be found in red slip (clay mixed with water) designs embellished on the ritual pottery of the Philippines such as the acclaimed Manunggul Jar. Evidence of Philippine pottery-making dated as early as 6000 BC has been found in Sanga-sanga Cave, Sulu and Laurente Cave, Cagayan. It has been proven that by 5000 BC, the making of pottery was practiced throughout the country. Early Filipinos started making pottery before their Cambodian neighbors and at about the same time as the Thais as part of what appears to be a widespread Ice Age development of pottery technology. Further evidences of painting are manifested in the tattoo tradition of early Filipinos, whom the Portuguese explorer referred to as Pintados or the Painted People of the Visayas. Various designs referencing flora and fauna with heavenly bodies decorate their bodies in various colored pigmentation. Perhaps, some of the most elaborate painting done by early Filipinos that survive to the present day can be manifested among the arts and architecture of the Maranao who are well known for the Naga Dragons and the Sarimanok carved and painted in the beautiful Panolong of their Torogan or Kings House. Filipinos began creating paintings in the European tradition during 17th century Spanish period. The earliest of these paintings were Church frescoes, religious imagery from Biblical sources, as well as engravings, sculptures and lithographs featuring Christian icons and European nobility. Most of the paintings and sculptures between the 19th, and 20th century produced a mixture of religious, political, and landscape art works, with qualities of sweetness, dark, and light. Early modernist painters, such as Damian Domingo, were associated with religious and secular paintings. The art of Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo showed a trend for political statement. Artist such as Fernando Amorsolo used post-modernism to produce paintings that illustrated Philippine culture, nature and harmony. While other artist such as Fernando Zobel used realities and abstract on his work. In early 80s other unique folk artist exists, one of these is Elito Circa as amang pintor, the famous Filipino folk painter. He uses his own hair to make his paintbrushes, and signs his name with his own blood on the right side of his paintings. He developed his own styles without professional training or guidance from masters. Literature The literature of the Philippines illustrates the Prehistory and European colonial legacy of the Philippines, written in both Indigenous and Hispanic writing system. Most of the traditional literatures of the Philippines were written during the Mexican and Spanish period. Philippine literature is written in Spanish, Filipino, Tagalog, English and other native Philippine languages. Some of the well-known Filipino literatures are Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo, Florante at Laura, Ibong Adarna and among others which are still being studied by Filipino students nowadays. Dance Philippine folk dances include the Tinikling and Carinosa. In the southern region of Mindanao, Singkil is a popular dance showcasing the story of a prince and princess in the forest. Bamboo poles are arranged in a tic-tac-toe pattern in which the dancers exploit every position of these clashing poles. Music The early music of the Philippines featured a mixture of Indigenous, Islamic and a variety of Asian sounds that flourished before the European and American colonization in the 16th and 20th centuries. Spanish settlers and Filipinos played a variety of musical instruments, including flutes, guitar, ukelele, violin, trumpets and drums. They performed songs and dances to celebrate festive occasions. By the 21st century, many of the folk songs and dances have remained intact throughout the Philippines. Some of the groups that perform these folk songs and dances are the Bayanihan, Filipinescas, Barangay-Barrio, Hariraya, the Karilagan Ensemble, and groups associated with the guilds of Manila, and Fort Santiago theatres. Many Filipino musicians have raised prominence such as the composer and conductor Antonio J. Molina, the composer Felipe P. de Leon, known for his nationalistic themes and the opera singer Jovita Fuentes. Modern day Philippine music features several styles. Most music genres are contemporary such as Filipino rock, Filipino hip hop and other musical styles. Some are traditional such as Filipino folk music. Architecture The Nipa hut (Bahay Kubo) is the mainstream form of housing. It is characterized by use of simple materials such as bamboo and coconut as the main sources of wood. Cogon grass, Nipa palm leaves and coconut fronds are used as roof thatching. Most primitive homes are built on stilts due to frequent flooding during the rainy season. Regional variations include the use of thicker and denser roof thatching in mountain areas, or longer stilts on coastal areas particularly if the structure is built over water. The architecture of other indigenous peoples may be characterized by angular wooden roofs, bamboo in place of leafy thatching and ornate wooden carvings. The Spaniards introduced stones as housing and building materials. The introduction of Christianity brought European churches, and architecture which subsequently became the center of most towns and cities. Spanish architecture can be found in Intramuros, Vigan, Iloilo, Jaro and other parts of the Philippines. Islamic and other Asian architecture can also be seen depicted on buildings such as mosques and temples. The Coconut Palace is an example of Philippine Architecture. Contemporary architecture has a distinctively Western style although pre-Hispanic housing is still common in rural areas. American style suburban-gated communities are popular in the cities, including Manila, and the surrounding provinces. Cinema The advent of the cinema of the Philippines can be traced back to the early days of filmmaking in 1897 when a Spanish theater owner screened imported moving pictures. The formative years of Philippine cinema, starting from the 1930s, were a time of discovery of film as a new medium of expressing artworks. Scripts and characterizations in films came from popular theater shows and Philippine literature. In the 1940s, Philippine cinema brought the consciousness of reality in its film industry. Nationalistic films became popular, and movie themes consisting primarily of war and heroism and proved to be successful with Philippine audiences. The 1950s saw the first golden age of Philippine cinema, with the emergence of more artistic and mature films, and significant improvement in cinematic techniques among filmmakers. The studio system produced frenetic activity in the Philippine film industry as many films were made annually and several local talents started to gain recognition abroad. Award-winning filmmakers and actors were first introduced during this period. As the decade drew to a close, the studio system monopoly came under siege as a result of labor-management conflicts. By the 1960s, the artistry established in the previous years was in decline. This era can be characterized by rampant commercialism in films. The 1970s and 1980s were considered turbulent years for the Philippine film industry, bringing both positive and negative changes. The films in this period dealt with more serious topics following the Martial law era. In addition, action, western, drama, adult and comedy films developed further in picture quality, sound and writing. The 1980s brought the arrival of alternative or independent cinema in the Philippines. The 1990s saw the emerging popularity of drama, teen-oriented romantic comedy, adult, comedy and action films. The Philippines, being one of Asias earliest film industry producers, remains undisputed in terms of the highest level of theater admission in Asia. Over the years, however, the Philippine film industry has registered a steady decline in movie viewership from 131 million in 1996 to 63 million in 2004. From a high production rate of 350 films a year in the 1950s, and 200 films a year during the 1980s, the Philippine film industry production rate declined in 2006 to 2007. The 21st century saw the rebirth of independent filmmaking through the use of digital technology and a number of films have once again earned nationwide recognition and prestige. II. PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATION. The sense of freedom that goes with the realization that psychology need not be imported from the United States of America brought new vigor, new meanings, and new directions for Philippine psychology. An intriguing redefinition of psychology itself is foreseen with the Filipino psychologist’s growing interest in the arts. Imbued with dynamism and a commitment to indigenous Filipino psychology in music and the arts, Felipe de Leon Jr. led the Sikolohiyang Pilipino movement as the fifth president of the association, promoting consciousness in people’s arts. De Leon distinguishes people’s art from specialist art. The first includes traditional, indigenous, ethnic and folk art. To be sure, people’s art exist everywhere in the country, especially among our rural and urban populations whose education is more or less synonymous with the life process in the community rather than with the artificially structured, essentially theoretical, mental learning that occurs in a formal setting such as a school. It is an art integrated in myriad ways, with everyday concerns, interests, functions and activities. Specialist art on the other hand, is a product of the individuals who received formal schooling and training in liberal arts, fine arts, literature, music, dance, drama or film in schools. Folk art reflects the concept of kapwa and is a rich source for understanding the Filipino worldview. The openness, as well as the present gradual development of mass-based artists whose aesthetic interests lie in depicting the peeks, depths, hardships and aspirations of contemporary Filipino life undoubtedly touch on pakikiisa, the highest level of kapwa psychology. Delineating the Filipino psychology and worldview is a contribution towards liberation—by not simply describing the Filipino outlook as seen in his arts, in his behavior and culture, but in moving him to action on the basis of his own worldview and on his own terms. The surge of interest in the arts changes the self-image of the Filipino psychologists themselves and, perhaps, even their identity. After all, it can be argued that psychologists must move closer to art not in order to avoid psychology but precisely to approach its very core.

Friday, September 20, 2019

New Generation of a Mobile Primary Frequency Standard

New Generation of a Mobile Primary Frequency Standard New generation of a mobile primary frequency standard based on cold atoms S T Mà ¼ller 1, J de Martin Jà ºnior 1, R D Pechoneri 1, P Santa Catharina1, V S Bagnato2 and D V Magalhà £es1 Abstract. We have constructed a mobile primary frequency standard using intra-cavity cold cesium atoms and the first results shown the advantages of using this kind of system compared to cesium beam standards. Based on an expanding cloud of atoms, it has no stringent size limitations and one can imagine the possibility of a clock even more compact. In order to assemble a new system even smaller, we are developing a system containing lasers, microwave source and cavity in a single box. The mobile atomic standard based on cold atoms is an important contribution to a primary standard of high relevance, and a possible strategic product with a broad range of applications. Introduction With exceptional accuracy, atomic clocks have applications in several fields of modern fundamental physics [1]. They allow not only to investigate the macroscopic scales theories like relativity or gravitation, but also to know better the microscopic world, in atomic scale, thanks to quantum mechanics. Two of the main applications are navigation and telecommunication systems, and atomic references are the heart of the most advanced navigation system, satellite constellations positioning like GPS, GLONASS, and Beidou [2]. Most of the high performance time standards require an extremely complex construction and operation, but the size of these systems makes them incompatible with some applications, which require a compromise between size and performance. These include space and industrial applications, such as telecommunication lines, mobile telephone networks or internet, calibration of instruments, dissemination of local time references with good quality, etc. The Atomic Time and frequency Standard Program under development at USP Sà £o Carlos [3] has two main atomic frequency standards being developed, an atomic fountain [4] and a system based in a cold atomic cloud in free expansion [5]. Besides those experimental standards, our facility has commercial atomic clocks and a hydrogen maser. The theoretical and experimental knowledge acquired with these standards are now employed in the development of a mobile atomic frequency standard, which should maintain the same level of stability and accuracy of the experimental setups. To ensure the mobility of the system, new diode laser sources, microwave synthesizer, vacuum and control systems are being redesigned. Experimental setup and temporal sequence The aim of this project is the construction of a cold atoms compact frequency standard that works in an innovative way, since the steps of the sequence occur in the same place, within a microwave cavity. For the physical package we use a cylindrical cavity, sculpted in a stainless steel vacuum chamber and resonant in 9.2 GHz. This operation mode allows us to design a much more compact system than a conventional cold atoms clock, where the various interactions are in different parts of the instrument. Therefore, the compactness of the clock is achieved through a sequence purely temporal. The most relevant steps can be seen in Figure 1. The temporal sequence of the compact frequency standard can be divided in four well defined steps (see figure 1), as follows: (Step 1)Trapping atoms in a magneto optical trap (MOT) In this stage is possible to capture 108 atoms using magnetic field and three counter-propagating pairs of laser beams (MOT) [6]. This is important to catch up the atoms together in the same spatial region, forming a cold cloud, and to remove a huge portion of the cloud’s kinetic energy. In this step the atomic cloud attains very low temperatures and becomes more stable. The cycling transition is used, and repumping is done using the transition. (Step 2)Sub-Doppler Cooling and the Preparation After the first reduction of the kinetic energy, the system passes from MOT configuration to optical molasses by switching off the current supply of the magnetic field. Simultaneously, the atomic cloud is cooled even more, changing the intensity and detuning of the laser beams with acousto-optical modulators, reaching levels below 10 ÃŽ ¼K. In order to prepare the atoms in their ground electronic state , the repumping light is switched off 5 ms before shutting off the cooling light. During this interval, optical pumping efficiently transfers the atoms to the required ground state. (Step 3) The clock transition interrogation Now, the cold atoms are in a single initial state and after the total shutdown of the lasers beams, the cloud starts a free expansion. During the expansion the atoms are interrogated in a Ramsey sequence [7], consisting of two coherent microwave pulses with 1ms of duration and separated by 8ms. These pulses excite the clock transition between the two hyperfine levels . (Step 4) The Detection To detect the atoms that have transitioned to the level after the two microwave pulses, the light beams originally used as a cooling laser are turned back on for 40 ms, and the fluorescence signal is collected. Once the resonance is observed, it can be used as a frequency discriminator. The transition probability difference of two successive measurement acts as an error signal used to control the local oscillator frequency. Results Figure 2 presents a typical scan of the microwave frequency across the clock resonance in our device [5]. Using the Ramsey fringe of Figure 2, we can scan around the central fringe to determine the linewidth with a theoretical fitting (Figure 3), obtaining a value of 47 Hz. The contrast is better than 80% (where the contrast is defined as a difference between resonance amplitude and background). To measure the frequency stability of the system is necessary to lock the central resonance observed on figure 3 to the microwave chain (macroscopic oscillator). The microwave chain on the other hand is phase locked to the 5 MHz output of the Hydrogen Maser. The modulation of the frequency is controlled by a computer, which also register the introduced correction to keep the interrogation signal at its maximum. The stability observed is , as presented in Figure 4, demonstrating that this compact cold atom frequency standard can reach performances better than commercial beam clocks, which typically have short time stabilities on the range of 10-11 10-12. The advantage of cold atoms in such compact system can be easily observed if compared with commercial thermal Cs beam clocks. The long term stability already surpasses the currently used commercial standards and the clock transition linewidth is on the order of 50 Hz for our system, meanwhile the same resolution can be achieved only with a thermal system that has some meters in the interrogation region (26 Hz for a 4 m long interrogation region [8]). [GMD1] Reducing the system volume We actually envisage a more compact system, mounting the apparatus in a single block. This should be done keeping all the necessary processes to produce a frequency standard signal. 4.1. The macroscopic oscillator A fundamental piece of the atomic standard, it corresponds to the signal that generates the time reference. The feedback from the atoms interrogated with its signal closes the loop for the atomic frequency reference. It should be as small as possible, but still taking into account some parameters as temperature deviations [9, 10]. To achieve reliable performance, we will use PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) control and peltier elements as actuators. 4.2. Lasers Diode The use of laser diodes is fundamental in the system. They should keep a very low effective linewidth, in order to not degrade the SNR of the clock transition. In the limit of high resolution spectroscopy, the laser noise can add a significant parcel to the overall budget of noise contributions. 4.3. General Control of the System Careful control of all the steps of the clockwork (trap, sub-doppler cooling, interrogation and detection) is mandatory. In each cycle the microwave source is corrected, and the steps consist of well synchronized events, such as laser light frequency shifts, pulsing of the microwave signal, triggered signal detection and processing of the atomic fluorescence [11]. Conclusions We have developed a compact system to be used as a mobile reference for frequency signals. We managed to cool 108 atoms at 10 ÃŽ ¼K in a microwave cavity and after the Ramsey interrogation the detection by fluorescence is applied. The core idea is the use of cold atoms as a high performance and reliable clock source. We have been working in the reduction of volume to make an embeddable prototype, in order to maintain the high quality characteristics necessary for the operation of such device. References Jespersen J and Fitz-Randolph J 1999 From sundials to atomic clocks (Mineola: Dover Publications) Ramsey N F 2002 Application of atomic clocks in: Laser physics at the limits, ed Figger H. et al (Berlin: Springer) p 3 Ahmed M, Magalhà £es D V, Bebeachibuli A, Mà ¼ller S T, Alves R F, Ortega T A, Weiner J and Bagnato V S 2008 The brazilian time and frequency atomic standards program An Acad Bras Cienc 80, 2 Magalhà £es D V 2004 Construà §Ãƒ £o de uma fountain atà ´mica para utilizaà §Ãƒ £o como padrà £o primà ¡rio de tempo Doctorade thesis Mà ¼ller S T, Magalhà £es D V, Alves R F and Bagnato V S 2011 Compact Frequency Standard based on an Intracavity Sample of Cold Cesium AtomsJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28 11 p 2592 Metcalf H and Van Der Straten P 2003 Laser cooling and trapping of atoms J.Opt. Soc. Am. B 20 p 887 Vanier J, Audoin C 1989 The quantum physics of atomic frequency standards v2 (Adam Hilger) Glaze D J, Hellwig H, Allan D W and S. Jarvis 1977 NBS-4 and NBS-6: The NBS primary frequency standards Metrologia 13 p 17-28 L. E. Schnurr 1967 The transient thermal characteristics of quartz resonators and their relation to temperature-frequency curve distortion 21st Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (1967) Ji Wang, Yook-Kong Yong and Tsutomu Imai 1998 High-order plate theory based finite element analysis of the frequency-temperature relations of quartz crystal oscillators Frequency Control Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International (1998) J. Levine 1999 Introduction to time and frequency metrology Review of scientific instruments 70, 6 [GMD1]

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Teaching and Learning in a Networked Composition Classroom Essay

Teaching and Learning in a Networked Composition Classroom In her essay â€Å"Technology and Literacy: A Story about the Perils of Not Paying Attention,† Cynthia L. Selfe notes that â€Å"technology is either boring or frightening to most humanists; many teachers of English composition feel it antithetical to their primary concerns and many believe it should not be allowed to take up valuable scholarly time or the attention that could be best put to use in teaching or the study of literacy† (Self 412). Looking around campus it takes little time to verify Selfe’s caution about indifference to computers: except in its uses as â€Å"a simple tool that individual faculty members can use or ignore in their classrooms as they choose† (Self 414), computer use has been, and for the most part still is, nascent within the humanities. As computers increasingly become an irreplaceable part of daily life in modern culture, however, more and more instructors attempt to carry out the task of incorporating technology into the p edagogical techniques of their disciplines. Over the past four months I’ve had the invaluable opportunity to get a behind-the-scenes look at one particular attempt to integrate computers and writing instruction. In Dr. Will Hochman’s English 101-43 (SP 2003) classroom I’ve learned much about both the process and underlying philosophies involved in making computers a productive classroom tool. In particular, I’ve learned the basic truth that, despite the potential boost offered by technology, simply having computers in the room with students is not enough to produce a positive impact on the educational experience. One of the most significant reasons why this is the case, I'd argue, is that Selfe’s observation about faculty might...> 19 Aug. 2002. Negroponte, Nicholas. â€Å"Bits and Adams.† Being Digital.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Free Essays on Sonnet CXXX :: Sonnet essays

Sonnet CXXX In our class we have been discussing sonnet cxxx. Many of my classmates believe that Shakespeare was saying that, although this girl is ugly, he still loves her. While others claim that he was not making any statements about her looks, but instead being realistic. It is my view that he was making a point of claiming that his girlfriend was a regular person and not a mythological goddess. Most people have heard on television or in movies, some guy tell his girlfriend that she has eyes as deep as the ocean or lips as soft as velvet. Although these all sound very romantic they are probably not true. In the first line of this sonnet, Shakespeare says "his mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun". then he says that her lips are not as red as coral, and that her skin is not as white as snow. of coarse she doesn't have white skin no person has truly white skin. So to assume that he was stating that she was then dark and pail lipped would be wrong. One cannot claim, that since he says she is not one thing, that he must be implying she is the opposite. He goes on to say that perfume smells better than her breath. never says that In our class we have been discussing sonnet cxxx. Many of my classmates believe that Shakespeare was saying that, although this girl is ugly, he still loves her. While others claim that he was not making any statements about her looks, but instead being realistic. It is my view that he was making a point of claiming that his girlfriend was a regular person and not a mythological goddess. Most people have heard on television or in movies, some guy tell his girlfriend that she has eyes as deep as the ocean or lips as soft as velvet. Although these all sound very romantic they are probably not true. In the first line of this sonnet, Shakespeare says "his mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun". then he says that her lips are not as red as coral, and that her skin is not as white as snow. of coarse she doesn't have white skin no person has truly white skin. So to assume that he was stating that she was then dark and pail lipped would be wrong.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Change Speech -Kite Runner, Poem, Article Essay

One can perceive change within themselves in various ways and through various mediums. Today I stand before you, ladies and gentleman to discuss with you three significant Changing Self texts I believe, strongly connect in their own ways with the Representations of Changing Self expo. Change can be an immediate process or it can be a series of events over a prolonged period of time like it is in Hosseini’s novel The Kite Runner, published in 2003. However, using different texts The Kite Runner and perhaps a poem, like The Door, by Miroslar Holub for example, can represent change of self not only in a different format, but also connecting ideas that change can be triggered by a certain event or experience in history which can leave a lasting impact on the present and future. At times we need to be coached or pushed into change, however in other instances we are called to embrace the opportunity as it arises. Sometimes we come across change unknowingly, by innocence or fear of circumstances as of a true story of an Indian boy named Saroo who unknowingly was driven through the process of change. Changing Self can be a very difficult process to acknowledge and to accept. This idea is significant in The Kite Runner; a ‘deeply moving’ novel demonstrates how a horrific experience of one unforeseen event can change the present and future of a young life. Amir slowly develops realisation with age that another change is required to bring about a new beginning or ‘a way to be good again’, as Rahim Khan said presented as a ‘one time’ opportunity . As discussed in the beginning of the novel we are revealed with a component of the past which reflects the choice of future Amir is faced with. The result of Amir’s dreadful experience of watching his servant friend, or not-so-much friend, Hassan being raped and the fact that he didn’t do anything about it, or step in and fight Asef before any commotion began fills Amir with unsound guilt and remorse which he proved unable to hide away from, ‘it was my past of untatoned sins† as quoted. This guilt is too powerful for him to acknowledge, so much so that he takes the course of trying to change the way things ran around his home, by getting rid of Hassan from his life. Amir runs away, metaphorically and literally from the environment and surrounds in hope to seek a better mind and reality. Using the literal ‘running’ from Afghanistan to America to seek safety, he does this metaphorically as he tries to run away from the guilt he cannot let go of. The symbolic use of the cleft lip is a significant detail in the novel used to classify that a person can be identified through specific events and choices, positive or negative. By this whereas Hassan had a cleft lip as a child, this same scenario is changed around as Amir embraces the opportunity to ‘become good again’ and save Sohrab, Hassan’s son, and Amir’s own nephew, from Asef. Amir changes his old cowardice to courage, stepping fourth to fight a losing battle with Asef, a noted, ‘cathartic’ experience, relieving himself from pain, with pain from the blows of Asef, leaving Amir with a cleft lip also. Only to be saved by Sohrab with the repeated symbolic use of the slingshot, this was also used to save Amir from Asef by Hassan years before. Amir feels as though he has positively changed for the better by embracing opportunity and new attribute of courage, filling in the gaps of his stained past. Changing self may be presented as a door of opportunity or experience we may be called to open. The Door, an influential, yet daring poem by Miroslar Holub emphasises in an imperative tone of urgency and pushiness that any change is better than no change at all. Therefore, one must embrace any change as the opportunity presents itself. The symbol of the door is an indicator of opportunities, and the need for them to be open, just as Rahim Khan was a door of opportunity for Amir to open and experience the ‘drought’ or movement of change willing to take place, good or bad. The words, ‘if there is a fog, it will clear’ demonstrates how this presented opportunity for Amir to relieve his life of guilt with be finally removed with action of ‘opening the door.’ The repetition of ‘go and open the door’ is not only encouraging but coaching and emphasising that if all doors are opened and even if so many are negative, there will still be a positive movement because the door was opened and ‘at least there will be a draught,’ or rather, at least you will have tried to do something about an awful event or experience with an unseen future and not remain in the same position, dealing with the guilt and regret, which cannot escape. As long as the door remains shut, the air will remain stuffy and uncomfortable to breathe in, so coming fourth and opening the door will let fresh air and new opportunities to evolve. The writer explains the positives of change which is used to entice or urge the reader to want to experience a new change of air. Changing circumstances in one’s life can erratically change and impact one’s life within a series of events contained by a short span of time. This concept is represented in the deeply touching true story of an Indian boy, named Saroo which was published in the Sydney Morning Herald back in March this year. Throughout 25 years, young Saroo went through an array of unforseen events which lead him away from lifelong poverty and his mother to where he is today, amongst the rich living in Australia. Just as the Herald Sun writes, ‘Australia’s very own, slum dog millionaire!’ Why was this so? Many say it occurred because of fate. When Saroo, whom at the time was only five years old- awoke alone and very frightened at one of India’s very many train stations very late in the evening after he had fallen asleep waiting for h is brother to return. At this part of Saroo’s life, he had very little and was uneducated. Was it fear or was it God or a mixture of the both who persuaded young Saroo to pursue looking for his brother in the closest train simply because, ‘he might be in there.’ This simple child’s thought shunted and altered his life away from anything he ever knew†¦ one unforseen event, encouraged by fear, taking the opportunity to open the doors which lead to a train, almost leaving to go to Australia. The Sydney Morning Herald describes this event as ‘the night his young life’s course was altered forever.’ This change of self is represented by the innocence of a young boy. This concept is characterised by Saroo explaining how the reality of trying to get home became a dead end, just like, all the trains he road, to try and reach home, only to meet with another dead end. Various aspects of Saroo’s life were in fact ‘dead ends’ but when it came to his life depending on it, just as Amir depended on the opportunity from Rahim Khan, as unforseen at the time as it was both boys embraced their opportunities to find something, whether a brother or second chance. They opened the door. Saroo’s door opened eventually to a family from Australia whom adopted him, suddenly and strangely out of his life course, he landed himself in Hobart. In conclusion, we can gather that changing self can be a difficult process, yet also an unforseen process which may take place over a series of events. These three researched texts have shown connecting and similar views that we must make use of experience and opportunity of change as it arises. Through these views, we are challenged that ultimately it is up to ourselves via thoughts or actions or a mixture of both to decide the course of change we are willing to take. In the Kite Runner, it is up to Amir to choose to put himself in danger to make up for his guilty past, The Door commands us to take opportunities, and yet in the Sydney Morning Herald’s feature Story illustrates that with physical experience change is forever impacting. Each of these demonstrates in their own way how change can somewhat be forced upon a person and ultimately deliver them into a new direction.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Literary Analysis of Macbeth

Literary Analysis of Macbeth Having a lust for power can cause a loss in many things. It’s as if you’re in a win-lose situation. In this case, the play Macbeth written by Shakespeare has scholars sayings, â€Å"The lust for power by Macbeth and Lady Macbeth led to a loss of humanity. † With that said, I totally agree with their view. Both Lady Macbeth and Macbeth went out of their way to even killing King Duncan and burdening the murder on his guardsmen. Even though that’s a common human act, you just don’t do something like that. It’s just so wrong. The acts of both these people are very evil and violent, in which causes Macbeth to move from one act of endangerment to another just to protect himself from a great disaster which I likely consider his death to be it. Lady Macbeth is like a tag along buddy. She is like a huge helping hand to Macbeth and ends up dying on her way to the top with him. Both of their desires for high royalty led themselves to death. So, as said lusting for power is very harmful to oneself unless done in a proper way; meaning without anyone getting hurt. The prophecies from the three witches which take place in the woods are what started Macbeth to lose his mind and soon after Lady Macbeth. With the encounter of the witches, they greeted Macbeth as, â€Å"Hail to thee; Thane of Glamis, Thane of Cawdor, and King here-after. † The title he has now is Thane of Glamis, but he doesn’t understand how he could have the title of Thane of Cawdor, when actually Macbeth only led King Duncan’s forces to victory, so considering that the Thane of Cawdor still lives, there’s no way he can get that title. Being called King here-after definitely got his head pumped up with adrenaline to seek more questions and answers. Soon after the witches vanish, the noblemen of Scotland; Ross and Angus were sent by King Duncan to tell Macbeth of the execution of the Thane of Cawdor and to grant Macbeth of the title. With that said, Macbeth was shocked that the prophecy had come true. So, after one prediction, he’s hoping for another-in which it is to become King of Scotland. With the visit to King Duncan, the King announces that his son Malcolm will be heir to the throne. In Macbeth’s mind, all he can think about is murdering the King and all that will come along with it. Macbeth sends a letter to his wife telling of all that has happened and to prepare for the King’s visit. In order to keep the murder in her mind she doesn’t want anything to get in her way, so she even goes to the point of seeking evil and not wanting to be a women-afraid of the feminine ways which will interfere in the murder. When Lady Macbeth says, â€Å"Come, you spirits/ That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, / And fill me, from the crown to the toe, top-full/ Of direst cruelty! Make thick my blood; (I v ll. 44-47) it shows how far Lady Macbeth is willing to go to make sure her husband and herself gets to the top. She even goes to the point to call upon the spirits to unsex her and fill her with cruelty to make sure that here feminine ways don’t cause the plan to go wrong. A huge act of lusting for power taking place which led to a loss of humanity was when the killing of King Duncan actually took place. The way he died was very unfortunate for Scotland but at least he died without torture. Lady Macbeth’s plan was to get King Duncan’s guardsmen drunk in which she did. That then led to an open path to walk in and carry out the murder of the King. However, a weakness rose for Lady Macbeth; the resemblance of her father was seen in the King and led her to backtrack. With the guardsmen drunk to a state of sleep, Macbeth then moves in for the kill. He takes the guardsmen sword, goes in and stabs King Duncan in his sleep. With that done, Lady Macbeth puts the sword back with the guardsmen, seeing that Macbeth has been cowardly traumatized of what he had done and cannot return the sword back to the King’s guardsmen. The aftermath soon takes place with Macduff soon getting suspicious of Macbeth. Another prophecy is put into Macbeth’s mind about when the witches say Banquo’s children will rule while Macbeth’s does not. Now, keep in mind that Banquo is like Macbeth’s best friend. But, do you think that will stop Macbeth from doing anything worse? No, he doesn’t care about Banquo, as a matter of fact not even anyone; now that he thinks he is unstoppable. Macbeth soon sends his people to kill Banquo and his son Fleance. Banquo is dead, but Fleance manages to escape. With the plan to kill Banquo and Fleance in his mind, he does not say anything to his wife and so that leaves her on her own. When he tells his wife, â€Å"And with thy bloody and invisible hand/ Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond/ Which keeps my pale! †¦ Things bad begun make strong themselves by ill. / So prithee go with me. † (III ii ll. 53-55/60-61) he shows how bad he is really lusting to get to the top. He’ll even break that bond of good friendship with Banquo to get it. By ill-fated events, Macbeth means that things will be stronger in whatever takes place of those events. The turning point of this whole ordeal is when Macbeth should’ve drew the line when deciding that he would murder; slaughter Macduff’s family. He just went over the edge with this plan. In my opinion, Macbeth has just lost it. To go and murder someone’s family is as if your planning your own death. As Macduff has gone to England and Macbeth is getting suspicious of him, he seeks the killing of the family. You can guarantee retaliation is amongst Macduff when he finds out all this. Another shocking turn of events is when Macbeth learns of Lady Macbeth’s death. He had shown little emotion. His lust for power caused him to even care little of the suicidal murder of his Lady. Macbeth ends up dying in the most horrible way. During battle against Malcolm and Macduff’s troops, he ends up getting his head chopped off by Macduff. Macbeth died like a tyran he is. As you can see, Lady Macbeth and Macbeth had this great amount of lust, desire, want, and craving for power. They got everything, but as a result lives have been lost. While Lady Macbeth has her new title as queen, she slowly seems like she isn’t enjoying it, and the reason for that is due to the fact that her guilty conscience followed up on her little by little. She felt like what she did was wrong as in killing King Duncan and lying to everyone. She couldn’t even take it anymore that it caused her to lose her mind and commit suicide. Macbeth, in my opinion throughout this whole play sets him up to die from the start. It was like he wrote his own death. Both these two lost their mind completely, almost un-human like. Overall, as you can see, all the events of trying to gain power caused all these tragic events.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Properties of Gases

Heather Schnicker 26 October 2012 Experiment # 4 (Lab 3) Properties of Gases PURPOSE The purpose of this experiment was to investigate and identify the chemical properties of the gases tested. DATA Gas| FLAME REACTION| GLOWING SPLINT| LIMEWATER REACTION| BROMOTHYMOL BLUE REACTION| Hydrogen| NO REACTION| Â  | Â  | Â  | Oxygen| Â  | BURNED BRIGHTER| Â  | Â  | Hydrogen & Oxygen| QUICK FLAME BURST| Â  | Â  | Â  | Carbon Dioxide| Â  | PUT THE FIRE OUT| NO REACTION| TURNED YELLOW| Alka Seltzer| Â  | Â  | BUBBLED| Â  | Breath| Â  | Â  | HUGE BUBBLES| Â  | CONCLUSIONBased off this experiment it made me realize that the reactions are much more different when comparing an acidic or basic solution. By doing these experiments at home also proves a point in that knowing what type of reaction to expect is a must. QUESTIONS A. Give two reasons why we fill the gas generator test tubes almost to the top with chemicals. * To get as much gas as possible without any air * Some of the chemicals could react with the oxygen that is filling up the rest of the test tube B. What happens to the zinc in the hydrogen generation experiment? * It dissolvesC. What happens to the manganese in the oxygen generation experiment? * The manganese acted as a catalyst D. Write a balanced equation for the reaction between 02 and H2? -H2 + H2 +02= 2H20 E. What is the function/purpose of the bromothymol blue in the C02 experiment? -To show how acidic solutions react differently than basic solutions E. Bromothymol blue is blue in the presence of basic solutions, and yellow in the presence of acidic solutions. If your solution is a murky green, what might you assume about a solution? -It is a mixture of acidic and basic solutions

Saturday, September 14, 2019

How Boys Become Men

How Boys Become Men The article â€Å"How Boys Become Men† written by Jon Katz, gives a positive statement on how boys still haven’t change and are still growing up the same. Jon Katz, shares with us while walking his dog one day, he saw a boy get beaten by a group of older boys. While walking towards him, Katz asked if he was okay; the boy said yes and begun to swing like nothing happened. I believe that what Jon Katz states is true, because the fact is; boys are always going to think they’re the Alpha Male in every situation.For example: who can climb the highest Rock, who can make a bigger splash in the pool or who can maybe get a girlfriend first. From experience when hanging out with my brother and his guy friends, they always end up trying to compete against each other. In my opinion I think it’s funny the things they make each other do. One day we were all going as a family to hike at Great Falls, and my brother decided to bring his three closes guy friends, Mark, Anthony and Oscar. As we all began to hike the path, before you knew it the boys were all ready starting to race to the top.There was another time my friend Kevin and I, went to swim in Lake Anna and he challenged me to jump from the highest rock into the water. As I finished jumping, I saw him already preparing to jump in as well. When he got out of the water, I saw that his foot had minor cuts and asked him if he was okay. He brushed off what I said, and said, â€Å"let’s go again! † Lastly, boys always tend to be strong and not let others know they’re hurting. This is what happened to my older brother as fell off his bike and hurt his knee, when he was ten years old. Another example were boys decide to be the â€Å"Alpha Males†, could be at the pool with their friends.Last summer my friend Ashley and her boyfriend decided to meet my friend Alex and I at the pool. Ashley’s boyfriend John, and my close friend Alex hit it of from th e start. I saw that John did something that Alex, in my opinion never had done before. Alex did the trick, that John dared him to do with out hesitating and hit his leg really hard, (by looks of it) on the corncrake. Momentarily, they began swimming and Alex ignored the bump on his leg. Boys in my opinion never want to show they are not up for a challenge. Every time my brother’s friends come over, they always began playing around and see who is the strongest out of all of them.Or from what I see, they could also began to lift certain objects and see who can throw them the farthest. Lastly, it’s not all about the who can be the better rock climber or who is the strongest, but maybe who can capture a girls heart first. I have seen this many times from boys who have lost friendships over the same girl they liked, only because they both wanted to be with her. Sadly, only one gets the girl. This is were things get really hectic, and boys sometimes become foes, instead of f riends. Boys often get very competitive if they both want the same girl, just like my brother did with his ex best friend, Joey.Also they never want to admit they lost, sometimes they simply say they didn’t try hard enough. In conclusion, yes, boys want to be that strong, fearless, awesome guy that they have been taught mostly by, their parents or society. But just as Jon Katz says, they want love and understanding when things do not go right for them. Which is very similar how girls are as well. Boys just tend not to show it, because of the pride they have or what they have gone through in their childhood. To sum it all up, boys are always going to be the same, but as they grow up they will learn how to deal with their insecurities in life.